10th MCM – Oulu, Finland, May 27 – 29

TD # Title Authors Abstract WGs
TD(19)10001 Vehicular Networks Simulation with Realistic Physics Esteban Egea-Lopez, Fernando Losilla, Juan Pascual-Garcia And Jose Maria Molina-Garcia-Pardo Evaluation of cooperative automated driving applications requires the capability of simulating the vehicle and traffic dynamics as well as the communications with a level of accuracy that most of current tools still lack. In this paper we explore the use of game engines in hybrid traffic-network simulators. We describe and validate a novel framework based on this approach: Veneris. Our framework is made of a traffic simulator, implemented on top of the Unity game engine, which includes a realistic vehicle model and a set of driving and lane change behaviours adapted to a 3D environment that reproduce real-world traffic dynamics; a ray-launching GPU based propagation simulator, called Opal, and a set of modules which enable bidirectional coupling with the OMNET++ network simulator. The more relevant and novel mechanisms of Veneris are introduced, but further implementation details can be checked on the source code provided in our repository.We discuss the validation tests we have performed and show how it provides accurate results in three key areas: the fidelity of the vehicle dynamics, the recreation of realistic traffic flows and the accuracy of the propagation simulation. In addition, general results of the expected performance are provided. DWG1: Radio Channels, DWG2: PHY Layer, DWG3: NET Layer
TD(19)10002 Dynamic Ray Tracing: Introduction and Concept D. Bilibashi, E. M. Vitucci, V. Degli-Esposti Radio applications in vehicular environment are becoming increasingly popular due to the development of autonomous driving and safety enforcement techniques that make use of vehicle-to-vehicle, vehicle-to-infrastructure as well as of radar solutions. Due the large variety of possible configurations, and to the highly dynamic characteristics of the environment, specific deterministic radio propagation models must be developed to assist the design and simulation of such vehicular applications. In the present work we present a dynamic ray tracing model that can provide a multidimensional channel prediction, including Doppler’s shifts, with a single run on the base of a suitable “dynamic environment database” that describes a scene with moving objects and terminals. The proposed approach, applied to a reference street canyon scenario with a large moving object representing a bus is shown to yield realistic estimates of the channel’s power-Doppler profiles. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(19)10003 Four Pillars of IoE in Health Tamara Škorić, Konstantinos Katzis, Slađana Jovanović, Dragana Bajić The internet of everything (IoE) is a concept that resides upon four distinctive pillars: people (connecting people in more relevant, valuable ways), data (converting data into intelligence to make better decisions), process (delivering the right information to the right person or right machine at the right time) and things (devices and objects connected to each other, also known as internet of things, IoT). The purposes of this contribution is to align the four IoE pillars to the available mobile data sources in order to create a huge database, available for the medical research society. Each one of the four pillars is analyzed and the possibilities, advantages and disadvantages discussed. SEWG-IoT: Internet-of-Things for Health
TD(19)10004 Novel Over-the-Air Test Method for 5G Millimetre Wave devices, based on Elliptical Cylinder Reflectors David Reyes, Mark Beach,Moray Rumney,Evangelos Mellios,and John Haine The goals for 5G New Radio (NR) technology are to deliver wireless communications with higher capacity, performance, and efficiency compared with current mobile technologies. 5G NR will make effective use of the millimetre wave frequency spectrum to achieve these goals. However, these higher frequencies experience greater signal attenuation due to increased

path loss and blockages. To overcome these, it is necessary to use high-gain directional active array antenna systems (AAS) at both ends of the communications link, which can steer the radiating beam in multiple directions. The cost effective and compact implementation of the AAS requires the RF transceiver and antenna array to be highly integrated, making it impossible to independently test the performance of the constituent components due to the lack of inter-stage connectors. Further, the propagation channel is highly dynamic in both temporal and spatial domains.

Hence, conformance testing of such systems is most effectively carried out using Over-The-Air (OTA) testing, since traditional conducted non-spatial test methods will not predict the radiated performance in space and the action of the RF transceiver, in particular the beamformer. This paper presents a highly novel millimetre wave OTA test method facilitating the excitation of a Device Under Test (DUT) from multiple dynamic narrow angles of illumination, thus representing typical operating conditions and avoids the need for physical RF connections. This new method exploits the reflective properties of ellipsoidal surfaces and offers a cost-effective means when compared with other OTA

test methods.

EWG-OTA: Over-The-Air testing
TD(19)10005 Bluetooth Low Power Portable Indoor Positioning System Using SIMO Approach Stanislav Rozum, Jan Kufa, Ladislav Polak The proposed Bluetooth Low Power (BLE) localization system focuses on simplifying deployment procedures in corridors while preserving the accuracy. It uses the Log-Distance path loss model, where the determination of environment constants is easier than creating fingerprints. Next, when the corridor is narrow enough (e.g., hospitals or office buildings), the perpendicular position may not be required, and further simplification in the floor plan design can be adopted. That results in a simple line per corridor (1D system). In order to reduce fluctuations in the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and achieve an easy and portable solution to perform measurements on several sites, a wireless BLE Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO) system is introduced. The accuracy of the system for a fixed tag, placed in different spots on the line across the whole corridor, is better than 2.4m in a 90% of measurements. The average error is 0.92m without any filtration algorithms. Localisation and Tracking
TD(19)10006 Ray-based Deterministic Channel Modelling for sub-THz Band Gregory Gougeon, Yoann Corre, Mohammed Zahid Aslam Future wireless communications systems will require large network capacities beyond the capabilities of present and upcoming 5G technology. The trend of considering higher frequencies for their large bandwidths continues today into the sub-THz domain. The BRAVE project considers the frequencies in the 90-200 GHz spectrum, which have been considered in this paper. The challenges of channel modelling at sub-THz frequencies are described along with extensions made to a ray-based deterministic tool. The geographical and physical accuracies inherent to the ray-based tool are exploited to simulate two different scenarios. The first scenario is an indoor office scenario and the second is an outdoor in-street scenario. The application of the updated channel modelling properties of the ray-based tool provides interesting perspectives into the sub-THz channel modelling. This permits the development of realistic models for the evaluation, characterization and eventual deployment of such systems. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(19)10007 Spatial Properties of Industrial Wireless Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communication MIMO Links Stefan Zelenbaba, Markus Hofer, David Löschenbrand, Thomas Zemen, Georg Kail, Martin Schiefer We show the results of a measurement campaign done in an industrial environment, to characterize frequency-selective 2 x 2 multiple-input multiple-output channels. The transmitter is kept static while the receiver moves across a positioning board between line-of-sight and obstructed line-of-sight. We compare capacity, diversity order, and fading patterns of different antenna settings. We observe that higher outage capacity is achieved when using dipoles with same polarization rather than cross-polarized dipoles. The settings with higher capacity rates also show lower root-mean-square delay spread values, due to the presence of a strong line-of-sight component. We see how polarization and antenna alignment influence the fading patterns. DWG1: Radio Channels,DWG2: PHY Layer
TD(19)10008 Performance Analysis of Hierarchical Decision Aided 2-Source BPSK H-MAC CSE with Feed-Back Gradient Solver for WPNC Networks Petr Hron, Jan Sykora The paper addresses a problem of channel phase estimation in a 2-source Hierarchical MAC channel in a Wireless Physical Layer Coded (WPNC) system with Hierarchical Decode and Forward strategy. We assume a non-pilot based estimator, a pilot based one would require orthogonal pilot signal resources which are not available in WPNC system. In such a system, the receiving relay node does not have the individual source data available and the only data related estimator aid is a many-to-one network coded data function. We analyze the performance of estimator with feed-back gradient solver. Particularly we analyze: (1) mean square error (MSE) performance including its relation to Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB), and (2) we analyze properties of ambiguity modes of the estimator. DWG2: PHY Layer
TD(19)10009 The Study of the Probability Density Function of the Total Intensity in a Trunk Dominated Forest Saúl A. Torrico, Cuneyt Utku, and Roger H. Lang The radiative transport equation is being considered in order to assess the propagation loss between a transmitter and a receiver located in a two-dimensional trunk-forested medium. The transport theory is used to study the effects of multiple scattering for a two-dimensional forest of lossy tree trunks in the high and low frequency regimes. In the low frequency limit, the results are compared with the values obtained from a Monte-Carlo simulation of an ensemble of infinite length, vertical cylinders. Finally, using the Monte-Carlo simulation in conjunction with the radiative transport theory, we study the probability density function of the total signal amplitude and intensity. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(19)10011 On the clustering of radio channel impulse responses using sparsity-based methods Ruisi He, Wei Chen, Bo Ai, Andreas F. Molisch, Wei Wang, Zhangdui Zhong, Jian Yu, and Seun Sangodoyin Radio channel modeling has been an important research topic, as the analysis and evaluation of any wireless communication system requires a reliable model of the channel impulse response (CIR). The classical work by Saleh and Valenzuela and many recent measurements show that multipath component (MPC) arrivals in CIRs appear at the receiver in clusters. To parameterize the CIR model, the first step is to identify clusters in CIRs, and a clustering algorithm is thus needed. However, the main weakness of the existing clustering algorithms is that the specific model for the cluster shape is not fully taken into account in the clustering algorithm, which leads to erroneous clustering and reduced performance. In this paper, we propose a novel CIR clustering algorithm using a sparsity-based method, which exploits the feature of the Saleh–Valenzuela (SV) model that the power of the MPCs is exponentially decreasing with increasing delay. We first use a sparsity-based optimization to recover CIRs, which can be well solved using reweighted l1 minimization. Then, a heuristic approach is provided to identify clusters in the recovered CIRs, which leads to improved clustering accuracy in comparison to identifying clusters directly in the raw CIRs. Finally, a clustering enhancement approach, which employs the goodness-of-fit (GoS) test to evaluate clustering accuracy, is used to further improve the performance. The proposed algorithm incorporates the anticipated behaviors of clusters into the clustering framework and enables applications with no prior knowledge of the clusters, such as number and initial locations of clusters. Measurements validate the proposed algorithm, and comparisons with other algorithms show that the proposed algorithm has the best performance and a fairly low computational complexity. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(19)10012 RANSAC for Exchanging Maps in Multipath Assisted Positioning Markus Ulmschneider and Christian Gentner The classical approach to the multipath problem in positioning algorithms is to try to mitigate the influence of multipath components (MPCs) on the line-of-sight (LoS) path. Over the last years, a contrary approach has emerged with multipath assisted positioning, where MPCs of terrestrial signals are regarded as LoS signals from virtual transmitters. Thus, the spatial information in MPCs is exploited for localization. The locations of the physical and virtual transmitters can be estimated together with the user position using simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). To decrease the possibly long convergence time of SLAM, maps of transmitters can be exchanged among users. The information in a map can then be fused with the user observations. However, in the general case, the users do not know their starting locations and/or headings, and therefore are in their own local coordinate systems. When maps of transmitters are exchanged, the relative rotation and translation between the coordinate systems of a user and a received map need to be estimated. Within this paper, we propose a variant of the random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm for this estimation as it is very robust against outliers. We show by simulations in an indoor scenario that RANSAC increases the accuracy significantly. Localisation and Tracking
TD(19)10013 LTE Multipath Component Delay Based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Junshi Chen, Meifang Zhu, Fredrik Tufvesson Cellular radio based localization can be an important complement or alternative to other localization technologies, as base stations continuously transmit signals of opportunity with beneficial positioning properties. In

this paper, we use the long term evolution (LTE) cellspecific reference signal for this purpose. The multipath component delays are estimated by the ESPRIT algorithm, and the estimated multipath component delays of different snapshots are associated by global nearest neighbor with a Kalman filter. Rao-Blackwellized particle filter based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is then applied to estimate the position of user equipment and that of the base station and virtual transmitters. Analysis based on data logged from a measurement campaign with a single base station shows the performance of the algorithm with maximum position error of 1.5 meters.

Localisation and Tracking
TD(19)10014 Channel Static Antennas Gerald Artner The possibility to keep wireless communication channels static is investigated. When an antenna is moved away from its position, this will in general cause the channel to change. Considerations suggest that wireless communication channels can be kept static by performing a counter-movement of the antenna to keep it in its original position relative to outside observers. Feasibility is shown for a platform moving in straight motion over a finite distance. The channel is kept static by countering the platform’s movement with physical movement of the antenna in the opposite direction. The experiment is conducted with a quarter-wavelength monopole antenna in the gigahertz range. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(19)10015 Machine Learning Methods for SIR Prediction in Cellular Networks Orit Rozenblit, Yoram Haddad, Yisroel Mirsky, Rina Azoulay Accurate assessment of the wireless coverage of a station is considered a key feature in 5G networks. Determining the reception coverage of transmitters becomes a complicated problem when there are interfering transmitters, and it becomes increasingly more complicated when the transmission powers of those transmitters are not uniform. In this paper, we compare different Machine Learning techniques that can be used to predict the wireless coverage maps. We consider the following Machine Learning methods: (1) Radial Basis Network; a type of Artificial Neural Network which typically uses Gaussian kernels, (2) an Artificial Neural Network which uses a sigmoid function as an activator, (3) A Multi-Layer Perceptron with two hidden layers, and (4) the K-Nearest-Neighbors technique. We show how it is possible to train the Neural Networks to generate coverage maps based on samples and we check the accuracy level of the learning process on a test set, using these four different learning techniques. The conclusion of our experiments is that if the sample points are randomly located, the Radial Basis Network and the Multi-Layer Perceptron perform better than the other methods. Thus, these models can be considered promising candidates for learning coverage maps, and can be used for efficient spectrum management within the framework of 5G cellular networks. DWG3: NET Layer
TD(19)10016 3D MIMO V2V Channel Measurements and the Cluster-based Channel Modeling Mi Yang, Ruisi He, Bo Ai, Jianzhi Li, Chen Huang, Zhangdui Zhong Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications have received a lot of attention as it can significantly improve efficiency and safety of road traffic. In general, V2V scenarios have some special features such as high mobility of transceivers, low antenna height, and small communication ranges, which significantly affect the propagation characteristics. Therefore, an accurate channel model is required to characterize V2V propagation channel. However, some important features of V2V channels have not been well characterized. For example, most existing V2V channel models tend to only consider the distribution of multipath components (MPCs) in horizontal dimension, whereas ignoring vertical dimension, which is inconsistent with the distribution of MPCs in the actual channel. Moreover, the dynamic clusters of MPCs have not been well modeled in the existing V2V models. Therefore, in order to better model the V2V channel, a large body of V2V channel measurements are conducted, and a cluster-based three-dimensional (3D) channel model is proposed in this TD, which is based on the measurements conducted at 5.9 GHz in urban and suburban scenarios. In the proposed model, the distribution of MPCs clusters in both horizontal and vertical dimensions is considered. The Space-Alternating Generalized Expectation-maximization (SAGE) algorithm is used to extract MPCs, and the clustering and tracking algorithms are used to identify and track the clusters of dynamic MPCs. In the proposed model, all MPC clusters are divided into two categories: global-clusters and scatterer-clusters, and the distribution of the two clusters are characterized by a series of inter and intra-cluster parameters. It is found that both the azimuth spread and the elevation spread follow the lognormal distribution. In addition, the power of MPCs within a cluster has the truncated-Gaussian distribution, whereas the angle of MPCs within a cluster has the Laplacian distribution. Finally, the accuracy of the model is verified by comparing the measurements and simulations. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(19)10017 Performance Analysis of Two Link Adaptation Algorithms for Relay-Assisted Links Governed by H-ARQ Protocols Vasile Bota, Mihaly Varga This TD proposes and evaluates the performance provided by two algorithms that dynamically configure the parameters (Link Adaptation) of a Relay-assisted Cooperative Hybrid-ARQ scheme (CHARQ) over Rayleigh-faded channels. The first algorithm, denoted by DelMin, aims at selection the configuration (modulation, FEC-coding rate) that provides the highest spectral efficiency out of the configurations that requires the smallest number of retransmissions, while ensuring a target block-error rate (BLERt). This algorithm is intended for low-latency and (ultra)-reliable (LLURC) connections. The second algorithm BetaMax aims at selecting the configuration that provides the highest spectral efficiency, while ensuring BLERt and keeping the number of retransmissions up to a maximum allowed value. This algorithm is intended for applications that are not delay-sensitive, but require an imposed degree of reliability. The BLER, spectral efficiency and delay performance of the two algorithms are evaluated for two relevant positions of the fixed relay node (R), relative to the source (S) and destination (D) nodes, both in the downlink and uplink connections. The impact of splitting the transmission power between the two transmitting nodes is also considered. The performance provided by the DelMin and BetaMax algorithms when configuring a HARQ scheme operating on the S-D link is used as baseline. The results obtained show that the DelMin and BetaMax algorithms should be used according to the delay and requirements of the transmitted applications and that they should configure and select adaptively the CHARQ and HARQ schemes according to the channels’ conditions, thus adding a new dimension to the Link Adaptation functionality, namely the cooperative or non-cooperative transmission, besides the modulation order, coding rate an transmission power level. DWG2: PHY Layer,DWG3: NET Layer
TD(19)10018 Empirical Validation of the Polarised Off-Body Channel Model with Dynamic Users Slawomir J. Ambroziak, Kenan Turbic, Luis M. Correia The paper presents an empirical validation of the polarised channel model for off-body communications, based on wideband indoor measurements at 5.8 GHz with a 500 MHz bandwidth. The simulated values of the total received power, first path delay, mean delay and delay spread of the channel have been compared against the measurements for a dynamic user scenario. Such a comparison is performed for the orthogonal polarisations of the off-body antenna, considering three wearable antenna placements on the body. Simulations are performed with and without considering the inter-path interference. In the former case, the root mean squared error (RMSE) for the total received power in the vertical and horizontal polarisation is within [1.7, 2.8] dB and [2.1, 3.1] dB, respectively. This error for the first path delay is very low, i.e. between 0.8 and 1.1 ns. The RMSE obtained for the mean delay is in the range of [3.6, 4.3] ns, regardless of the polarisation. The error for the delay spread is within [5.1, 7.2] ns and [3.6, 4.0] ns for vertical and horizontal polarisation, respectively. SEWG-IoT: Internet-of-Things for Health
TD(19)10019 Multi-objective optimisation of massive MIMO 5G wireless networks towards power consumption, uplink and downlink exposure Michel Matalatala, Margot Deruyck, Emmeric Tanghe, David Plets, Sotirios Goudos, Luc Martens, Wout Joseph The rapid development of the number of wireless broadband devices requires that the induced uplink exposure be addressed during the design of the future wireless networks, in addition to the downlink exposure due to the transmission of the base stations. In this paper, the positions and power

levels of the massive MIMO-LTE (Long Term Evolution) base stations are optimized while meeting the requirements of a lower power consumption, lower downlink and uplink electromagnetic exposure and maximal user coverage. A suburban area in Ghent, Belgium has been considered. The preliminary results show that the higher the number of BS antenna elements, the lower the downlink exposure but the higher the uplink exposure, whereas both downlink and uplink exposure increase with the number of

simultaneous served users. Moreover, the level of the downlink electromagnetic exposure of the massive MIMO network is 24 times lower than the 4G reference scenario. Note that further analysis is required to confirm these results will be performed in the upcoming weeks.

DWG3: NET Layer
TD(19)10020 Trajectories and Resource Management of Flying Base Stations for C-V2X Silvia Mignardi, Chiara Buratti, Alessandro Bazzi and Roberto Verdone In a vehicular scenario where the penetration of cars equipped with wireless communication devices is far from 100% and application requirements tend to be challenging for a cellular network not specifically planned for it, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), carrying mobile base stations, becomes an interesting option. In this article, we consider a cellular-vehicle-to-anything(C-V2X) application and we propose the integration of an aerial and a terrestrial component of the network, to fill the potential unavailability of short-range connections among vehicles and address unpredictable traffic distribution in space and time. In particular, we envision a UAV with C-V2X equipment providing service for the extended sensing application, and we propose a UAV trajectory design accounting for the radio resource (RR) assignment. The system is tested considering a realistic scenario by varying the RRs availability and the number of active vehicles. Simulations show the results in terms of gain in throughput and percentage of served users, with respect to the case in which the UAV is not present. EWG-IoT: Internet-of-Things
TD(19)10021 Experimental IoT Testbed for Testing the 6TiSCH and RPL Coexistence Gordana Gardasevic, Predrag Plavsic, Dragan Vasiljevic The paper provides a brief overview of IoT experimental platform established to monitor the process of 6TiSCH network formation and its stability. This stage of network inspection is of a vital importance for understanding the scheduling and routing mechanisms in 6TiSCH networks. The testbed setup is based on Opentestbed functionalities. We provide some preliminary results of experimental campaign based on OpenMote-B hardware platform and OpenWSN protocol stack. EWG-IoT: Internet-of-Things
TD(19)10022 Statistical models for 5G: interference in IoT. Laurent Clavier, Troels Pedersen, Ignacio Rodriguez Larrad, Malcolm Egan Fifth generation systems and beyond 5G envisioned an ever increasing density of connected things. In certain areas this can go up to one communicating device per meter square. One consequence is an increase in interference. It is crucial to know how this interfering environment will impact the communication performance. Many theoretical work suggests that inferference will exhibit dynamic non Gaussian statistics. In this work, based on measurments in Aalborg, we are showing the heavy tail behaviour of the interference and that an alpha-stable model fits well the data. DWG2: PHY Layer,EWG-IoT: Internet-of-Things
TD(19)10023 Impact of Deficient Array Antenna Elements on Downlink Massive MIMO Performance

in RIMP and Random-LOS Channels

Andrés Alayón Glazunov The Over-the-Air (OTA) characterization of large antenna systems needs to be time- and cost-efficient. Among others, two potential candidates are OTA measurement environments emulating the Rich Isotropic MultiPath (RIMP) and the Random Line-Of-Sight (Random-LOS) channels. In the present paper we study the capacity loss of downlink massive multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (Massive MIMO) narrowband systems in these channels due to deficient antenna elements. We evaluate the downlink ergodic sum rate for the Zero-Forcing (ZF) and the Matched-Filtering (MF) precoders in these channels. We consider a single-cell system comprising a base station with 50 equidistant isotropic source antenna elements placed λ/2 apart and 5 users each equipped with a single isotropic antenna. No coupling effects between the array elements have been assumed. In the present study we show that both the RIMP and the Random-LOS can be used to identify deficient performance of Massive MIMO arrays. EWG-OTA: Over-The-Air testing
TD(19)10024 Indoor Double-directional 3D Measurements at 190 GHz for 5G and Beyond Diego Dupleich, Robert Müller, Sergii Skoblikov, Markus Landmann, Giovanni Del Galdo, and Reiner Thomä In the present paper we introduce double-directional 3D measurements at 190 GHz in a conference room with the aim of characterizing propagation for channel modelling and beam-forming applications. Multiple scatterers have been identified with the assistance of ray-tracing, showing a rich multi-path environment. Furthermore, investigations into polarization have shown that a more deterministic modelling approach is needed for polarization. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(19)10025 Millimeter-wave channel characterization and modeling for intra-wagon communication Danping He, Xiping Wang, Chunfu Zheng, Ke Guan, Bo Ai, Zhangdui Zhong In order to meet the increasing data rate demands of the onboard passengers in the subway, millimeter-wave (mmWave) wideband communication is considered as a potential candidate. In this TD, mmWave channel is characterized and modeled for intra-wagon communication in the metro environment. The measurement was conducted in Madrid Metro with the frequency ranging from 26.5 GHz to 40 GHz. By minimizing the error of the dominant multipath components (MPCs) between the ray-tracing simulation (RT) and the measurement, the environment model and electromagnetic (EM) parameters of the main objects are calibrated. It is found that the poles, windows and the train body can generate strong reflection and scattering components. With the extracted low-order reflection and scattering from RT, the dense MPCs are modeled by using efficient propagation graph method, and the results are analyzed. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(19)10026 Channel Static Antennas for Compensating the Movements of a Partner Antenna Gerald Artner It has recently been demonstrated that the channel changes caused by the movements of an antenna can be compensated by a counter-movement of the antenna, effectively keeping the wireless channel static. In this work, it is considered that the moving antenna can not perform such a counter-movement and that the channel is instead kept static by the partner antenna to which the channel is formed. It is established that the channel can be kept static under certain conditions by moving the partner antenna with the original antenna along the same trajectory (with-movement, German: Mitbewegung). Experimental results are presented for a platform moving in straight motion over a finite distance. The experiment is conducted in an anechoic environment with quarter-wavelength monopole antennas in the gigahertz range. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(19)10027 Position Awareness for Drones to facilitate Beamforming Michael Schweins, Jukka Talvitie, Mike Koivisto, Thomas Kürner In future concepts drones will be utilized for a variety of tasks like delivery, in agriculture, security and observation and so on. Some of these use-cases require a mobile communication service which could be provided by the 4G or 5G Networks. Due to the flight altitude the drones have Line of Sight (LOS) to many cells which may increase the interference level in neighboring cells. However, in this paper we want to show that these increased LOS cases could be an advantage for the communication by enabling the drone to relatively position the serving cell as well as the neighboring cells according to its own position. As a result we will show how the interference level will decrease for the neighboring cell by applying beamforming with these position information. Localisation and Tracking
TD(19)10028 Evaluation of Veins and NS-3 for 802.11p based vehicular communication Nils Dreyer, Eicke Arne Janas, Thomas Kürner Network simulators play an important role for studying and evaluating V2V communication that is based on the IEEE 802.11p radio standard. Those simulators enable setting up a well-defined scenario that could be used to investigate critical situations e.g. channel congestion. Thereby many research that was published in the past is based on one of the two famous open source network simulators Veins (linked to OMNet++) or NS-3. In this paper we will give an overview of the simulation capabilities of Veins and NS-3. This includes a comparison of the offered features and a deeper analysis of the used propagation models. We setup scenarios and executed the same simulation in NS-3 and Veins to compare received power levels and the packet failure ratio. The study finally revealed some unresolved implementation errors. DWG2: PHY Layer
TD(19)10029 Injection Locking in Optical Access Networks for Broadband 5G Mobile Networks Jakup Ratkoceri, Bujar Krasniqi and Boštjan Batagelj The main purpose of a 5G network is to offer gigabit capacities with low latency for next-generation services. However, to address properly the needs of 5G, an effective way of dealing with fronthaul and backhaul traffic should be employed. Current optical access networks are not in a position to deliver the traffic capacities with high quality for 5G, with cost effectiveness and in a sustainable way. As a result they need to improve and be enhanced to be able to support 5G technical demands. This article presents a practical, cost-effective solution using an optical access network to accommodate the requirements of a 5G network. Using an injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser, we provide a high-quality and affordable solution at the end point. Furthermore, we present comparative results for a free-run Fabry-Pérot laser and improved results for an injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser, with the possibility of applications in 5G configurations. DWG2: PHY Layer,EWG-RA: Radio Access
TD(19)10030 Performance Profiling of Open MANET Radio Models and Multi-Hop Scenarios Fred Wagen, Victor Adalid, Gilles Waeber, Francois Buntschu and Gerome Bovet This TD might motivate the COST IRACON community to compare contributions to enhance VANET performances based on a common emulation tools and scenarios. In this TD, a realistic scenario for tactical MANET, called Anglova was developed within the NATO IST-124 and is openly available at Anglova.net. The NAT0 IST-150, which relies on Anglova for benchmarking, has recognized a potential drawback in a subset of this scenario: there is a lack of long ($>$ 4) multi-hop paths. Our contribution confirms this drawback using, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, EMANE emulations based on realistic TDMA radio models combined with the OLSRd implementations. In this contribution, we propose a scenario, called 1km-chain, which is shown to be quite challenging for low power radios and might be of interest for future profiling of MANET performances. Our 1km-chain scenario simply modifies the Anglova Company 1 scenario based on stopping particular nodes and on using a dual-slope propagation model fitted to the geo-shifted terrain-based path losses of the original Anglova scenario. DWG3: NET Layer,EWG-RA: Radio Access
TD(19)10031 Device2Device Security Mechanism implementation on SDR platform T. Balan, A. Balan, F. Sandu, M. Alexandru Though D2D technology brings many advantages (shorter latency, decreased network traffic, power saving and a fallback system in the case of network failure), it is generally acknowledged that the security of devices and data is a key factor for the success of D2D implementations. D2D can be applied using different technologies like Bluetooth, WiFiDirect and Near Field Communications (NFC), but is also standardized by 3GPP Proximity Services (ProSe) function. The security problematic areas include confidentiality, integrity, authentication, privacy, availability and dependability, as well as non-repudiation. This paper proposes a security mechanism for D2D communication involving the use of physically unclonable functions (PUF) for unique key generation, elliptic-curve cryptography (ECC) and Diffie–Hellman key exchange (DHKE) for key management, and Salsa20/20 as stream ciphering encryption method, suitable for confidentiality of the wireless transmissions. The cryptographic methods are implemented and tested on a software defined radio (SDR) communication platform consisting of a Zync-based system-onchip (SoC), complemented by radio frequency (RF) daughter boards. EWG-IoT: Internet-of-Things
TD(19)10032 On Simple Scattering Models and the GGX Directional Model for Point Cloud Predictions Jean-Frederic Wagen Inspired from the microfacets theory based BRDF models used in computer graphics, the reciprocal Walter et al.’s GGX multiplicative directional factor is proposed to complement usual scattering models for point clouds. Following several TDs (TD(16)01060, TD(17)04025,TD(17)05044, TD(18)06045, TD(18)07032), the TD(19)09079 proposed a single formulation to compute the scattering and specular reflection components. The formulation was missing the Degli-Esposti’s directional model feature which has been shown to fit measurement quite well despite its non-reciprocal behavior. The quantitative similarity of the GGX model to Degli-Esposti’s directional model tends to prove that the proposed model has similar benefits with respect to measurements. Other benefits of the complete model proposed here include (1) smooth transition from diffuse scattering to pure specular reflection as the considered area becomes smoother and larger than the Fresnel zone; (2) the appropriate area size dependance, as well as (3) the correct distance dependance. Only two fitting parameters related to the material and its apparent roughness might be sufficient for practical purposes. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(19)10033 Characterisation of Specular Reflection of Different Building Materials at 26 GHz Alberto Loaiza Freire, Mark Beach, Geoffrey Hilton The behaviour of signal reflection has become relevant with the use of millimetre waves (mmWaves) because their wavelengths are comparable with the size of irregularities of typical building material, especially with rough ones. These millimetric irregularities provoke diffraction and diffusion of the signal at that level, which cause a different behaviour in the channel that the one caused by sub 6 GHz signals. For that reason, a set of measurements has been undertaken with the aim of analysing and statistically characterising features of specular reflections from different building materials at 26 GHz. The amplitude of the reflected signal strength in the surfaces analysed has been compared with Rayleigh, Rician and Nakagami distributions, to determine which of those distributions provides the best fit for the reflected signal in each surface. A wideband characterisation of all surfaces analysed has been undertaken computing three parameters, such as number of Multipath Components (MPC), Excess Delay, and RMS Delay Spread, which provide a complete description of the behaviour of the reflected from the surfaces. Finally, a correlation analysis has been performed for all surfaces considered in this study. The correlation analysis comprises the computation of the Coherence Bandwidth (BWCoh) and the Coherence Distance (DCoh), these two parameters have been calculated using two different approaches in order to compare the accuracy of each method in describing the analysed surface. The well-known method that derives BWCoh and DCoh from the Time (Distance) Frequency Correlation Function (TFCF) was analysed first, but the one-parameter description of BWCoh suggest similarities between two extremely different surfaces. For that reason, an alternative approach with three-parameter description of the BWCoh and DCoh has been applied, which describes those parameters in a specific surface for a general case using the mean (μ), assesses the variation with the standard deviation (σ), and evaluates the worst case scenario with the minimum value (min). This method provided a better accuracy in describe the surface under test. DWG1: Radio Channels,DWG2: PHY Layer
TD(19)10034 Channel characterization in industrial environment with high clutter Raffaele D’Errico This TD presents the channel characterization in the 2-6 GHz band for an industrial environment with high clutter density. Measurements were performed in a machinery room, with virtual arrays used at both the transmitting and receiving side. Characterization of the path loss, delay and angular spreads are presented for LOS, OLOS and NLOS propagating conditions. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(19)10035 Effects On Polarization Characteristics of Off-Body Channels with Dynamic Users Kenan Turbic, Luis M. Correia This paper presents an analysis of the depolarization effect in off-body channels, based on a previously developed geometry-based channel model for polarized communication with dynamic users. The model considers Line-of-Sight propagation and components reflected from scatterers distributed on cylinders centred around the user. A mobility model for wearable antennas based on Fourier series is employed to take the effects of user’s motion into account. The focus is on scattered signal components, where the impact of a scatter’s position, its material properties, and the influence of user dynamics on the signal depolarization are investigated. It is observed that the wearable antenna motion has a strong impact on the channel’s polarization characteristics, particularly for dynamic on-body placements such as arms and legs. If the antenna motion is neglected, the error in simulated cross-polarization ratio is greater than 23 dB compared to a static approach. The antenna rotation during motion is found to be the dominant factor, while the corresponding displacement can be neglected, with the error not exceeding 1 dB. DWG1: Radio Channels,EWG-IoT: Internet-of-Things
TD(19)10036 Ground user localization in UAV-based wireless networks Sami Mezhoud, Jianqiao Cheng, Ke Guan, Francois Quitin The use of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) as flying base stations is gaining significant traction in the wireless communication society. Such UAV-based wireless networks could be quickly deployed to increase the range of a network or to replace a damaged infrastructure in emergency situations. One critical aspect of UAV networks is to determine the location of the ground users, which can be used to determine the optimal location for each

UAV. In this paper we investigate multiple techniques to detect a ground user with a UAV without need for expensive hardware or software processing, but rather by leveraging on the UAV movement. We demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods through experimental evaluation and raytracing simulations.

Localisation and Tracking
TD(19)10037 Optimizing Computational Resources Usage in C-RAN Mojgan Barahman, Luis M. Correia and Lúcio S. Ferreira In this paper, one proposes an approach for the optimized utilization of computational resources in a cloud radio access network’s baseband unit pool, relying on the load fluctuation of base stations. The resource allocation problem is formulated and solved as a constrained nonlinear optimization one, minimizing the computational resource usage by allocating these resources on-demand, based on the instantaneous requirements of base stations, whilst taking quality of service into account. To prevent the crashing of baseband units, the model guarantees a minimum amount of computational resources to be allocated. In addition, baseband units are weighted to be prioritized in case of lack of resource when not all the demand can be served. Simulation results, for a heterogeneous services’ usage environment, confirm that the proposed model allocates resources based on the weight of the baseband units in the pool driven from their requirements and the running services’ priority. Results also show that the proposed allocation can be up to 90% more efficient than conventional methods at a given time instant. DWG3: NET Layer
TD(19)10038 Ray Tracing for Antenna Arrays Lawrence Sayer, Andrew Nix The new technologies proposed for 5G networks, such as mmWave and MMIMO, exploit the spatial characteristics of the channel. Ray models are an attractive tool for gaining insight into the channel as they are less expensive and time-consuming than measurements, and provide more spatial information than stochastic channel models. To precisely track phase over an antenna array using the “ray launching” paradigm, a very high spatial resolution is required. It is shown that this means it is an unacceptably slow technique. A ray tracer, using the imaging method, has been developed specifically for the task of modelling propagation between arrays. Several optimisation techniques are presented, including, a new way of determining visibility between any two triangular primitives in 3D space, speeding up the creation of the visibility tree. Storing the coefficients for equations that govern if a path between two primitives is shadowed means that at run time costly recalculation can be avoided. A common optimisation strategy is to ray trace to the centre of an antenna array and then post process paths to account for an element’s offset from the centre, accounting for the array’s orientation. This technique is compared to a brute force element to element ray tracing operation in a small cell LOS, NLOS and partial LOS situation. It is shown that in some cases, to achieve accurate results, a brute force approach must be used. Recommendations for special circumstances where post-processing may be used are presented. An array-specific optimisation is presented that has an increased benefit with an increasing number of array elements, that would be suitable when conducting a costly brute force approach. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(19)10039 Radar Multi-path Channel Modeling for Autonomous Driving Tommi Jämsä, Wu Yong This paper introduces the framework and methodology of radar propagation and channel modeling for autonomous driving scenarios, emphasizing the relationship and differences between the radar and cellular communication channel models. Multi-path propagation is introduced in the context of vehicular radar, and it is incorporated in the framework of radar channel model for line-of-sight (LOS) and non-LOS (NLOS) cases. For the NLOS case, various potential paths are investigated. The channel impulse response model for radar target link and radar interference link are derived, and the essential channel parameters that spans the full channel model for autonomous driving radar application are provided. The path gain model applicable to multi-bounce path is presented, which is based on the relationship of radar cross section (RCS) and reflectivity. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(19)10040 Simulation of SLA-based radio resource slicing and allocation in virtual RANs Konstantin Samouylov, Yuliya Gaidamaka, Eduard Sopin, Luis M. Correia Virtual radio resource management system (VRRM) provides optimal sharing of virtualized resources of an infrastructure provider (InP) between several virtual network operators (VNO). One of the main objectives of the VRRM is to optimize the usage of radio access network (RAN) by dynamic sharing between slices in a fair manner according to their contracted Service Level Agreement (SLA). The paper presents the architecture of the VRRM simulation tool in terms of queuing systems. Besides, using the developed simulator, we analyze a practical scenario with 3 VNOs and different types of SLAs and investigate performance metrics under variation of traffic load and SLAs DWG3: NET Layer
TD(19)10041 Path loss measurements and models for indoor industrial IOT Sunlin Zhu, Tommi Jämsä, Raffaele D’Errico, Guo Bolun 3GPP RAN1 is investigating channel models for indoor industrial Internet of Things (IoT), defining (sub-)scenarios in the industrial IoT setting, and is looking for reliable path loss models for different sub-scenarios. This paper summarizes various measurement results and proposed models from different companies and universities. Two main models employed are alpha-beta-gamma (ABG) model and close-in-reference (CI) model to present the line of sight (LOS), non-LOS (NLOS) and obstructed-LOS (OLOS) path loss models. Measurement data in different scenarios and frequency bands were fitted to curves and path loss exponents and shadow fading distribution were summarized according to the models. Path loss curves from each measurement will be given as well. This paper is intended as a helpful overview of the studies conducted for industrial IOT channel modelling. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(19)10042 The response time analysis and optimization in a fog computing system Eduard Sopin, Konstantin Samouylov, Luis M. Correia Fog computing concept enables the provisioning of cloud computational resources with very low latencies, which makes it a good solution for resource-greedy and response time critical mobile applications. In the paper, we propose the threshold-based offloading scheme for these type of applications. We assume that tasks generated by mobile devices differ from each other in terms of required processing volume. The proposed scheme implies that “heavy” tasks are offloaded to the fog, while “light” tasks are processed locally on mobile devices. In the paper, we analyze the response time in the proposed offloading scheme and optimize the threshold so that as many tasks as possible are offloaded, but no congestion occurs on the fog nodes. DWG3: NET Layer
TD(19)10043 Comparison of Propagation Parameters Between Deterministic Models and Semi Deterministic Model in Urban Street Canyon scenario Gowshigan Selvarasa, Antti Roivainen This paper compares three channel models: the full ray tracing channel model developed by Beijing Jiaotong University (cloud RT), the simplified METIS map-based model, and a semi- deterministic (hybrid) channel model based on METIS model. The selected environment is an urban street canyon in the city of Beijing is chosen. Simulations are performed at 3.5 GHz to compare the channel characteristics such as power delay profile, angles of arrival and departure, RMS delay spread, angle spread, number of paths discovered. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(19)10044 Impacts of Point Cloud Modeling on Accuracy of Ray-Based Wave Propagation Simulations Pasi Koivumäki, Gerhard Steinböck and Katsuyuki Haneda This temporary document reports comparison of multipath channels of outdoor small-cells at 28 GHz simulated by point-cloud-based ray-tracer and those from measurements. The comparison shows that the ray-tracer is capable of reproducing measured channels with reasonable accuracy, given proper permittivity values set for major building walls. The accuracy however depends on types of point clouds we input to the ray-tracer, i.e., 1) raw point cloud from laser scanning measurements of the cellular site, 2) flattened point cloud where structural details of the environments are all lost like what we find in publicly available digital maps, and finally, 3) processed point cloud where missing sections are complemented, flat and rough surfaces are identified and wedges are detected. For condensed parameters of channels such as pathloss, delay and angular spreads, ray-tracing with the processed and raw point clouds shows equally good accuracy. In contrast, the ray-tracing with the processed point cloud shows clear advantage of accuracy over that with the raw point cloud when simulating physical propagation paths. The raw point cloud produces many fake paths that do not exist in measurements. While the processed point cloud reproduces many weak diffracted paths that are found in measurements and cannot be reproduced by diffuse scattering. Ray-tracing with the flattened point cloud is in least agreement with measurements. Still first-order specular reflections from large smooth walls are reproduced well by ray-tracer with any of the tested point clouds. We thereby demonstrate superiority of using the processed point cloud as inputs to ray-tracer to obtain multipath channels with highest fidelity to measurements. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(19)10045 Analyzing the Radar Cross Section signatures of the diverse drone models Vasilii Semkin, Jaakko Haarla, Thomas Pairon, Claude Oestges and Ville Viikari In this work, we present the updated results of the quasi-monostatic Radar Cross Section measurements of different Unmanned Aerial Vehicles at 26-40 GHz. We study the Radar Cross Section signatures of 9 different multi-rotor platforms and Lithium-ion Polymer batteries. The obtained results provide the considerable information which can be utilized for the superior drone detection at millimeter-wave frequencies. The results reveal how the radio waves are scattered by different sized drones and what is the material impact on the Radar Cross Section signatures. Obviously, larger drones made of carbon fiber are easier to detect, while the drones made from plastic and styrofoam materials are less visible by the radars. The measurement results can be utilized as a database for the substantial drone detection. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(19)10046 Distance Calibration for Indoor Cooperative Localization Bernhard Etzlinger, Andreas Ganhör, Moritz Lehner, Julian Karoliny, Núria Ballber, Andreas Springer Multipath effects on the communication channel introduce distance enlarging errors and, if not considered, strongly influence the precision of indoor localization systems. Decentralized cooperative localization is specifically susceptible to such errors when single value estimates are used. In this work we use channel related parameters to calibrate single-value estimates obtained in a UWB localization network. The parameters are first ranked according to their correlation with multipath effects, a simple calibration method suitable for embedded localization devices is presented, and their impact in localization precision and latency are discussed. Localisation and Tracking
TD(19)10047 OTA Measurement Range Length in 5G Systems Pertti Mäkikyrö, Md. Mazidul Islam, Aki Hekkala, Emmi Kaivanto There are many 5G OTA direct farfield test system proposals where the measurement distance does not follow the traditional far–field (e.g. Fraunhofer) definition. The traditional definitions typically give test system dimensions that are extremely expensive to implement. In this paper the shorter distances are studied by measurements in two different setups. The simpler one uses horn–to–horn direct coupling and the measurement parameter is S21. The more complex one uses an 8X8 array with a high-power amplifier to mitigate the real gNB base station beamforming with modulation. The measurement parameter is the error vector magnitude (EVM). The measurement frequencies are (sub–)mmWave frequencies, especially the band at 28 GHz. The S–parameter measurements indicate the near–field effect starts to decrease the coupling when coming close enough. The EMV measurements, in turn, demonstrate a complex phenomenon in the sense of available error level in signalling. EMV is improved when the range length is decreased (the same should be achieved when the antenna array gain is increased) but being too close in the sense of near–field vs. far–field distances the result is not anymore unique. EWG-OTA: Over-The-Air testing
TD(19)10048 Combined and independent statistics of clutter loss and building entry loss measurements at 26 GHz Belen Montenegro Villacieros, Sana Salous Currently there are two separate ITU-R P. recommendations on building entry loss (BEL) ITU-R P. 2109-0 and clutter loss (CL) ITU-R P. 2108-0. In sharing studies, BEL and CL are treated as multiplicative, i.e., the overall excess path loss would be the sum in dB of the individual losses. An initial study reported to the Study Group 3 meeting conducted to combine both losses indicated that there were errors made if BEL and CL are treated as multiplicative, for frequencies below 6 GHz. In this document, we present results of measurements, which characterise BEL and CL separately and BEL over a cluttered path. The results come from three different measurement campaigns in the same site but with different experimental setups. The results indicate that the BEL estimated from both methods are comparable and differ by less than 2 dB which indicates that BEL can be estimated from either method when the refernce loss is conducted outside the building under study. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(19)10049 Measuring micro-Doppler contributions of the rotating blades at 77 GHz Vasilii Semkin, Thomas Feuillen, Thomas Pairon, Christophe Craeye, Luc Vandendorpe, and Claude Oestges In this work, we investigate the micro-Doppler signatures of the rotating blades. We utilize commercially available radar system operating at 77 GHz for measuring the micro-Doppler effect. Different propellers are studied, i.e., various materials and propellers sizes are utilized in the measurements. The measurements are performed in the anechoic chamber to avoid unnecessary reflections. Based on the obtained spectrograms, we can verify the effect of the blade material on the micro-Doppler effect and, possibly, classify the propellers. The results of this study can be employed for the drone detection and classification. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(19)10050 Non-orthogonal Waveform Design with Iterative Detection and Decoding Sumaila Mahama, Yahya Jasim Harbi, Alister Burr and David Grace Orthogonal multicarrier waveforms such as OFDM have disadvantages for some 5G applications, due to relatively large out-of-band signals, and the requirement for time-domain synchronisation. Non-orthogonal waveforms exist which avoid these problems but suffer from large inter-carrier and intersymbol interference (ICI/ISI). In this work we consider a filter-bank multicarrier waveform with quadrature amplitude modulation (FBMC-QAM), without offset modulation as in FBMC-OQAM, which therefore suffers from severe ICI/ISI. Iterative detection and decoding (IDD) using low density parity check (LDPC) encoding and decoding is implemented together with iterative interference cancellation (IIC) to remove the inherent interference and improve the BER performance. Simulation results indicate that the proposed IDD receiver can effectively improve BER performance under time-varying channels. The use of EXIT charts to analyse this modulation is also discussed. DWG2: PHY Layer
TD(19)10051 A Review of Localization in OFDM Based Systems Piotr Rajchowski, Krzysztof Cwalina, Olga Błaszkiewicz, Alicja Olejniczak In the article a short review of the localization possibilities in the OFDM based system was presented. Discussed research studies are a start point for further implementation of a software for person tracking in a hybrid localization system dedicated for indoor and outdoor environments, based on cellular and RTLS solutions. The possibility of continuous person tracking is a point of interest of radiocommunication system developers and service providers, especially in the concept of the “networks of the future”. EWG-IoT: Internet-of-Things,Localisation and Tracking
TD(19)10052 A comparison between stochastic geometry and ray-tracing in small cells Simon Demey, Philippe De Doncker and Claude Oestges In this paper, a particular interest is devoted to the modelling of small cells in Manhattan-like environments. Accordingly, stochastic geometry-based models using Manhattan Poisson line process (MPLP) are compared with deterministic ray-tracing techniques. Raytracing techniques having a high computational complexity, this paper tries to show whether stochastic models can be used instead at a lower cost. The downlink (DL) coverage

probability for a typical user is investigated and shown to strongly depend on the used method for a realistic environment.

DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(19)10053 A 2.4 GHz LoRa Technology Solution for Industrial IoT Giampaolo Cuozzo, Marco Skocaj, Silvia Mignardi, Marco Cavaletti, Chiara Buratti, Roberto Verdone Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) networks are considered the large-scale deployment of IoT devices for industrial applications such as smart manufacturing, harvesting and supply chain management. The Internet of Things (IoT) devices are typically connected over a wireless medium, given the large geographical distribution area and the increasing demand for flexible installations. In some cases, a combination of wired and wireless connectivity can be assumed as common practice. In both scenarios, wireless communications for IIoT networks is a fundamental component of the system architecture that needs to satisfy stringent requirements such as reliable connectivity and minimal delays. This paper proposes the use of the LoRa technology at 2.4 GHz for a monitoring IIoT application. A proprietary solution for the medium access control protocol is presented and the impact of interference generated by Wi-Fi on the LoRa-based system is characterised via experimentation. EWG-IoT: Internet-of-Things
TD(19)10054 Distributed beamforming for millimetre-wave multiuser wireless communications Shammi Farahana Islam, Alister Burr and David Grace Enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) wireless communications in 5G and beyond will use millimetre-wave bands because of the bandwidth available, but this will require multi-element arrays to provide the antenna gain required to overcome the path loss in these bands. In this paper we consider the use of multiple arrays to provide distributed beamforming to serve multiple users, using precoding based on zero forcing to avoid inter-user interference. We also consider the effect of Ricean fading using a simple ring-of-scatterers model, and show that the effective Rice factor is increased due to the effect of beamforming. DWG2: PHY Layer
TD(19)10055 Air-to-ground propagation channel characterization. Ray-launching simulations and channel measurements Enrico M. Vitucci, Maximilian James Arpaio, Marina Barbiroli, Vasilii Semkin, Vittorio Degli-Esposti, Franco Fuschini Nowadays, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also known as “drones”, are attracting significant as they are expected to be used extensively in various civil and military applications, providing new services and improving their quality. In this regards, UAV based communications emerge as one of the most promising solutions for constructing the next-generation mobile radio networks. Therefore, air-to-ground (A2G) channel characterization is required for enabling the efficient design of the future wireless networks. In this work, we study the properties of the A2G propagation channel by means of ray-launching simulations and we present a preliminary plan for the UAV-based channel measurement campaign. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(19)10056 An Architecture Model of an In-body Nanonetwork for Disease Detection Pawel Kulakowski, Krzysztof Wojcik, Rafael Asorey-Cacheda, Sebastian Canovas-Carrasco, Antonio-Javier Garcia-Sanchez, Joan Garcia-Haro In this paper, we consider a flow-guided nanocommunication network deployed inside of a human vascular system. The network augments the human immune system helping with health issues related to serious bacterial infections, as well as to blood circulation and heart diseases. The network consists of nano-probes reporting medical issues, small nano-nodes working as information carriers, and nano-routers communicating with external medical systems. In order to evaluate the network performance, we propose a network architecture, discuss potential emerging medical applications and, finally, present some numerical results. SEWG-IoT: Internet-of-Things for Health
TD(19)10057 Evaluating the impact of MPAC system design parameters on the OTA system performance Manosha Kapuruhamy, Antti Roivainen, Jukka Kyröläinen, Pekka Kyösti, and Lassi Hentilä The upcoming fifth generation (5G) mobile networks are expected to provide services in different vertical domains. To support such diversified use cases, one design consideration of 5G systems is to use millimeter wave (mmWave) frequency bands (> 24 GHz) with wider carrier bandwidths. However, due to inherent channel characteristics in the mmWave bands, production and testing of devices that operate in these bands needs to be done carefully. Accordingly, it is necessary to evaluate the performance of a user equipment (UE) that operate in mmWave bands, at the product development and testing stages using an appropriate testing method. Thus, the design and development of an over-the-air (OTA) test system that can identify the behaviour of UEs over the 5G channel models is important, and it is a challenging task. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of key design parameters on the performance of an MPAC system for the case of radiated OTA testing. Specifically, we consider an MPAC system with multiple probes (with fixed locations) and a UE as the device-under-test (DUT). For this setup, we evaluate the OTA system performance using power-angular-spectrum similarity percentage (PSP) metric, at 28 GHz band for urban-micro and indoor-office scenarios for different 5G channel models. Numerically, we have observed that the OTA system performance is sensitive to the range length and the test zone size. Furthermore, we have also seen that there is no substantial improvement in the performance when the number of probes is increased beyond a certain level. EWG-OTA: Over-The-Air testing
TD(19)10058 Some considerations on correlations of hybrid beam forming arrays in the context of OTA testing Pekka Kyösti In this TD we derive the signal correlation coefficient for signals received by two simple and ideal arrays. We show correlation results with different linear arrays in simple sampled angular power distribution schemes. The purpose is to develop tools for evaluating over-the-air setups for testing of hybrid beam forming devices. EWG-OTA: Over-The-Air testing
TD(19)10061 Channel Static Antennas for Mobile Devices Gerald Artner Channel static antennas are considered for mobile devices. The antenna keeps the wireless communication channel static by performing a counter-movement that is opposed to movements of the device that might be caused by a user. The feasibility of the concept is demonstrated for linear movement in an office environment. Channel measurements are performed with quarter wavelength monopole antennas in the 2.4 GHz ISM frequency band. A channel model for the wireless communication channel of mobile devices with channel static antennas is proposed based on these measurement results. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(19)10062 A study on system capacity for HeNBs with different schedulers Rui R. Paulo and Fernando J. Velez This work provide a detailed study of HeNBs also know as femtocells on the average Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise-Ratio (SINR) and simulation for a building with a 5×5 apartments. The simulation results present a comparison for variations on the apartments sides and transmitter powers of the HeNBs. Also the impact of considering PF, FLS or EXPRule schedulers was taken in account. Results for the average SINR and for simulations shows that is more advantageous to considered smaller to deploy HeNBs. It is possible to extract from results the need of a rigorous selection of the schedulers. In the the considered scenario the FLS scheduler and EXPRule scheduler is a more secure option than the PF scheduler. DWG3: NET Layer
TD(19)10063 Techno-Economic Trade-off of Small Cell 5G Networks Emanuel Teixeira, Anderson Ramos, Marisa Lourenço, Fernando J. Velez and Jon M. Peha This paper studies the techno-economic aspects of implementing at Super High Frequency (SHF) and millimetre wavebands (mmWaves). The variation of the carrier-to-noise-plusinterference ratio with the coverage distance is evaluated, by considering two different path loss models, the two-slope urban micro Line-of-Sight (UMiLoS), for SHF band (from the ITU-R 2135 Report) and the modified Friis propagation model, for frequencies above 24 GHz. The equivalent supported throughput is estimated at the 5.62, 28, 38, 60 and 73 GHz frequency bands and the impact of carrier-to-noise-plus-interference ratio in the radio and network optimization process is investigated. Mainly due to the reduction caused by the behaviour of the two-slope propagation model for SHF band, the supported throughput at these bands is higher than at the millimetre wavebands, only for the longest cell lengths. The cost/revenue trade-off of these pico-cellular networks

was analysed for regular cellular topologies, by considering unlicensed spectrum. Due to the oxygen absorption excess, we can perceive an optimum of the revenue in percentage terms for values of the cell length, R, equal to 15 m and a decreasing behaviour after this optimum value at 60 GHz, while for the 28, 38 and 73 GHz bands the profit starts to decrease after R≈10 m. It is possible to observe that, for the 5.62 GHz band, the profit is slightly inferior

than for millimetre wavebands, for the shortest Rs, and starts to increase for cell lengths approximately equal to the ratio between the break-point distance and the co-channel reuse factor, achieving a maximum for values of R approximately equal to 1000 m.

DWG3: NET Layer
TD(19)10064 Economic Trade-off of Small Cell Networks: Comparison Between the Millimetre Wavebands and UHF/SHF Bands Emanuel Teixeira, Fernando J. Velez and Jon M. Peha This work aims at evaluating the impact of considering Ultra High Frequency (UHF), Super High Frequency (SHF) and millimetre wavebands (mmWaves), in the optimization of economic trade-off of small cell networks, by considering different path loss models. The two slope urban micro Line-of-Sight (UMiLoS) model for UHF/SHF bands (from the ITU-R 2135 Report) is compared with the modified Friis propagation model for frequencies above 24 GHz. The variation of the carrier-to-noise-plus-interference ratio with the coverage distance is assessed, and its influence in the radio and network optimization process is explored by means of the study of the variation of the equivalent supported throughput at the 2.6, 3.5, 28, 38, 60 and 73 GHz frequency bands. The observed higher supported throughput for the longest cell lengths at the UHF/SHF bands (compared to the millimetre wavebands), is mostly due to the reduction caused by the behaviour of their two-slope propagation model. By assuming null fixed costs (license) for the millimetre wavebands and equal values of the fixed cost at 2.6 and 3.5 GHz, we have analysed the economic trade-off of these pico-cellular networks in regular cellular topologies. We have learned that, on the one hand, at 60 GHz, owing to the oxygen absorption excess, there is an optimum of the revenue in percentage terms for values of the cell length, R, equal to 35 m and a decreasing behaviour after this optimum value, while for the 28, 38 and 73 GHz bands the profit starts to decrease after R≈15 m. On the other hand, in the UHF/SHF bands, the profit is very low for the shortest Rs, and starts to increase at a distance equal to the ratio between the break-point distance and the co-channel reuse factor and achieves maxima for values of R equal to circa 200 and 240 m, at 2.6 and 3.5 GHz, respectively. DWG3: NET Layer
TD(19)10065 Capacity/cost trade-off for 5G small cell networks in the UHF and SHF bands Emanuel Teixeira, Anderson Ramos, Marisa Alexandra Lourenço and Fernando J. Velez To fulfill the demand for high data rates from a wide number of users, higher frequencies can be used to provide the capacity necessary, but it increases the cost of coverage. 5G allows very high data rates, which needs large bandwidths and requires very high throughput. This paper studies the economic trade-off of small cell networks, implementing Ultra High Frequency(UHF) and Super High Frequency (SHF) bands. To evaluate the variation of the carrier-to-noise-plus-interference ratio with the coverage distance one considers the two slope urban micro Line-of-Sight (UMiLoS) path loss model (ITU-R 2135 Report). The variation of the equivalent supported throughput at the 2.6, 3.5and 5.62 GHz frequency bands was plotted to study the influence of the carrier-to-noise-plus-interference ratio in the radio and network optimization process. DWG3: NET Layer
TD(19)10066 Over the Sea UAV Based Communication Gianluca Fontanesi, Hamed Ahmadi, Anding Zhu Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) aided wireless networks  have  been  recently  envisioned  as  a  solution  to  provide  a reliable, low latency cellular link for search and rescue operations over  the  sea.  We  propose  three  different  network  architectures,

based  on  the  technology  deployed  on  the  UAV:  a  flying  relay,  a flying Base Station (BS) and a flying Remote Radio Head (RRH). We  describe  the  challenges  and  highlight  the  benefits  of  the proposed architectures from the perspective of search and rescue

operations  over  the  sea.  We  compare  the  performance  in  term of data rate and latency, analyzing different solutions to provide a Backhaul (BH)/Fronthaul (FH) link for long coverage over the sea. Results show that a system architecture is not outperforming

over the others. A cost function is thus indicated as a tool to find a  suboptimal  solution.

DWG3: NET Layer
TD(19)10067 Hough-Transform-Based Cluster Identification and Modelling for V2V Channels Based on Measurements Xuesong Cai, Bile Peng, Xuefeng Yin, Antonio Pérez Yuste In this paper, a recently conducted measurement campaign for vehicle to vehicle (V2V) propagation channel characterization is introduced. Two vehicles carrying a transmitter and a receiver respectively have been driven along an 8-lane road with heavy traffic. The measurement was conducted with 100 MHz signal bandwidth at carrier frequency of 5.9 GHz. Channels are observed consisting of two kinds of channel components, i.e, time-evolving clusters and clutter paths. A novel approach based on Hough transform is proposed to identify the clusters. Based on the cluster identification results, channel characteristics in composite, intra-cluster, and time-variant levels are analyzed. The parameters investigated include the composite root-mean-square (RMS) delay spreads and power decay vs. delay behaviours of clusters and clutter paths, cluster RMS delay spread, cluster RMS Doppler frequency spread, correlations of cluster parameters and coherence time of parameters of interest. The statistics constitute an empirical stochastic clustered-delay-line (CDL) channel model focusing on the wideband characteristics observed in the realistic time-variant V2V propagation scenario. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(19)10068 A weight-sum Multi-Objective optimization for Dynamic Resource Allocation with QoS constraints in realistic C-RAN Rolando Guerra-Gómez, Sílvia Ruiz-Boqué, Mario Garcia-Lozano, Joan Olmos Bonafé This work continues the research presented at the Dublin meeting, where a large-scale C-RAN deployment using realistic Vienna scenario was presented.  After this initial planning, real time resource allocation strategies with QoS constraints should be optimized as well. To do so, a realistic small-scale scenario for the Vienna metropolitan area is defined by modelling the individual variant traffic patterns of 7000 users (UEs) connected to different services. The distribution of resources among UEs and BBUs is optimized by a weight-sum Multi-Objective algorithm, based on a realistic calculation of the UEs Signal to Interference and Noise Ratios (SINRs) that account for the required computational capacity per cell, the QoS constraints and the service priorities. Results show that even after the optimization there are some time intervals where the allocated resources are underutilized, which opens the door to the definition of new Machine Learning algorithms able to predict the required capacity. DWG3: NET Layer