Special Sessions at EuCAP 2020


Special Session at EuCAP 2020

Date: March 15-20, 2020
Location: Copenhagen, Denmark

EuCAP is Europe’s largest and most significant antennas and propagation conference attracting academic and industrial participants at all career stages from all over the world. It is a premier forum for exchange of new technical-scientific achievements, for demonstrating state-of-the-art technology, and for establishing and strengthening professional cooperations and networks. In addition, it is a steadily and strongly developing conference.

Following the cancellation of EuCAP 2020 due to the Coronavirus situation, the organisers setup of a virtual conference, including an online Best Paper Awards Presentation Session and four online short courses.

IRACON organised 3 special sessions within the event. See below for more details.

Tuesday, 17 March – 08:30-10:10

Joint IET/IRACON Session: Propagation Measurements and Modelling for 5G and Beyond

Chairs: Mark Beach (University of Bristol, United Kingdom (Great Britain)), Sana Salous (Durham University, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

8:30 Investigation of Resonance Based Propagation Loss Modeling for THz Chip-to-Chip Wireless Communications
Jinbang Fu, Prateek Juyal, Baki B Yilmaz and Alenka Zajic (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)

This paper proposes a path loss model for THz chip-to-chip wireless communication in desktop size metal enclosures with respect to transceivers positions. This path loss model accounts for the attenuation due to the signal spreading, resonant modes inside the cavity, and the radiation pattern of the antenna. Measurements were performed in LoS and 2-D and 3-D misalignment propagation scenarios. The model prediction shows a good agreement with measured results, which proves the validness of the model.

8:50 A Hardware-in-the-Loop Evaluation of the Impact of the V2X Channel on the Traffic-Safety Versus Efficiency Trade-offs
Alessandro Bazzi (University of Bologna, Italy); Thomas Blazek (TU Wien, Austria); Michele Menarini (CNR-IEIIT, Italy); Barbara M Masini (CNR – IEIIT & University of Bologna, Italy); Alberto Zanella (Istituto di Elettronica e di Ingegneria dell’Inform. e delle Telecomunicazioni, Italy); Christoph F Mecklenbräuker (TU Wien, Austria); Golsa Ghiaasi (Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway)

Vehicles are increasingly becoming connected and short-range wireless communications promise to introduce a radical change in the drivers’ behaviors. Among the main use cases, the intersection management is surely one of those that could mostly impact on both traffic safety and efficiency. In this work, we consider an intersection collision warning application and exploit an hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) platform to verify the impact on the risk of accidents as well as the average time to travel a given distance. Besides including real ITS-G5 compliant message exchanges, the platform also includes a channel emulator with real signals. Results show that the risk of collisions can be drastically reduced, with an overall trade-off between safety and traffic efficiency. At the same time, it is shown that the presence of real channel conditions cannot guarantee the same condition of zero-risk as with ideal channel propagation, remarking the importance of channel conditions and signal processing.

9:10 Multipath Characteristics of Outdoor-To-Indoor Propagation Based on 32-GHz Measurements
Juyul Lee, Kyung-Won Kim, Myung-Don Kim and Jae-Joon Park (ETRI, Korea (South))

This paper investigates measurement-based multipath characteristics of millimeter-wave (mmWave) outdoor-to-indoor (O2I) propagation. The measurement campaigns were conducted in a typical office building with a 500-MHz bandwidth channel sounder operating at frequency 32 GHz. The multipath propagation characteristics are analyzed in spectrum-based approaches in temporal (delay) and spatial (angular) domains. In our measurement, we considered the effect of the transmit incidence angles on the multipath characteristics. In the perpendicular incidences, we observed regularly recurring multipath components reflecting from the back-side and the front-side windows. However, in non-perpendicular incidences, it was hard to identify the sources of multipath reflections from the spectrum-based approach. From the measurement data analysis, we also observed that the delay spread and the angular spread do not have any meaningful dependency on the incidence angles; these are more relevant to the surrounding indoor environments near the RX.

9:30 Penetration Loss at 60 GHz for Indoor-to-Indoor and Outdoor-to-Indoor Mobile Scenarios
Sung Yun Jun (National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA); Derek Caudill and Jack Chuang (NIST, USA); Peter Papazian (NIST Division 673, USA); Anuraag Bodi (National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA); Camillo Gentile, Jelena Senic and Nada Golmie (NIST, USA)

This paper investigates the penetration loss of an office building in indoor-to-indoor and outdoor-to-indoor mobile scenarios. The measurements were collected using our 60-GHz double-directional switched-antenna channel sounder. During measurement, the transmitter, mounted on a tripod, was placed in an office and outside of the building, while the receiver, mounted on a mobile robot, moved along an interior hallway. The penetration loss for a variety of building materials was predicted versus incident angle by electromagnetic propagation theory using the ITU-R Recommendation P.2040 model parameters and compared with the measurement results. The wooden door, plasterboard wall, and interior glass were observed to have penetration losses ranging from 26 dB to 41 dB, 12 dB to 32 dB, and 8 dB to 18 dB, respectively, while the exterior building materials exhibited even larger penetration losses, ranging from 30 dB to 67 dB.

9:50 Hybrid Channel Modeling for Intra-Wagon Communication in Millimeter-Wave Band
Xiping Wang, Danping He, Ke Guan and Bo Ai (Beijing Jiaotong University, China); Juan Moreno (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain); Cesar Briso (Universidad Politecnica de Madrid & ETSIS Telecomunicacion, Spain)

Millimeter-wave (mmWave) wideband communication is considered as a potential candidate to meet the increasing data rate demands of the onboard passengers in the metro. Channel modeling is important for the system design and evaluation in such environment. Ray-tracing (RT) modeling can accurately trace propagation paths, and has been proven successful in many works. However, it is complicated and time-consuming to work in harsh environments, where dense multi-path components exist and the reverberation effects can happen. To tackle this problem, an hybrid channel modeling approach, which combines the RT method and the propagation graph (PG) method, is proposed and introduced in this work. According to the evaluation results, the proposed method performs better than either the RT or the PG alone model in terms of accuracy and efficiency.

10:10 Coffee Break

10:40 Experimental Characterization of the Underframe Area of a Passenger Train with an UWB Channel Sounder: Preliminary Results
César Calvo Ramírez (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain); Juan Moreno (Metro de Madrid S.A. & Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain); Cesar Briso (Universidad Politecnica de Madrid & ETSIS Telecomunicacion, Spain)

In this paper we present a testbed for Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) measurements of the radio channel plus some early results taken on a very singular scenario: the underframe area of a passenger train. This area is heavily populated with heavy mechanical elements key for the safe movement of the train (axles, wheels, brakes, suspensions, etc.) which are prone to the installation of sensors in order to know the condition of these mechanical elements. The channel sounder is based on a commercial module (Decawave DWM1001) intended for indoor location but with some tinkering could be used to obtain channel measurements.

11:00 Irregular MultiFocal Reflector for Efficient mmWave Propagation in Indoor Enviroments
J. Samuel Romero-Peña (Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain)

In future implementations of 5G systems , it is essential the use of the spectrum in the range of mm-Waves frequencies , in order to offer to the users the bandwidth proposed in the standard. However , using this frequency range lead to many technical difficulties in which the most important challenge is the critical attenuation of the signal in non-line-ofsight (NLOS) environments in indoor environments. Therefore is essential to plan strategies that allow us to mitigate the problem of signal attenuation in this kind of complex environments and ensure the viability of using this technology in short term. Then the objective of this research is the design of a passive reflector that allow us to redirect the energy of the transmitting antenna efficiently in order to avoid the obstacles of the environment ,and therefore avoid excessive losses.

11:20 Measurement and Characterization of an Indoor Industrial Environment at 3.7 and 28 GHz
Mathis Schmieder (Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute, Germany); Taro Eichler (Rohde & Schwarz, Germany); Sven Wittig (Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute, Germany); Michael Peter (Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications, Heinrich Hertz Institute, Germany); Wilhelm Keusgen (Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute, Germany)

Fifth generation (5G) mobile networks are expected to play an increasing role in industrial communication with private mobile communication networks deployed on company premises. For planning, standardization and product development, it is crucial to to thoroughly understand the radio channel characteristics of such environments. Frequencies around 3.7 GHz were already reserved by regulation authorities and to meet the increasing demand for higher bandwidths, spectrum in the millimeter wave range around 28 GHz is targeted. This paper presents a wideband channel measurement campaign at both 3.7 and 28 GHz with direction-of-arrival information at 28 GHz. The results are compared to the 3GPP TR 38.901 Indoor Factory model and to two other recent papers. Evaluation of path loss and RMS delay and angle spread show the unique nature of industrial indoor environments.

11:40 Channel Modelling Based on Game Engines Light Physics for mmW in Indoor Scenarios
Saúl Inca, Danaisy Prado, David Martín-Sacristán and Jose F Monserrat (iTEAM Research Institute, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain)

The importance of Millimeter Waves (mmW) band for the Fifth Generation (5G) of mobile and wireless communications has motivated a lot of work in mmW channel modeling. In this paper, we assess the use of the light physics modeling of a game engine to calculate the propagation losses at mmW band in an indoor scenario. With that aim, we propose a model that we refer to as Light Intensity Model (LIM), in which a detailed 3D scenario is created in a game engine, radio transmitters and receivers are replaced by light sources and detectors, and the received light intensities are translated to received radio signal power through a translation function which is the key of the model. The results obtained corroborate the validity of the assessed approach to model propagation losses in indoor scenarios.

12:00 Path Loss Models and Delay Spread Parameters for the Millimetre Wave Channel in Indoor Environments
Sana Salous and Saied El-Faitori (Durham University, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

This paper presents results of path loss and r.m.s. delay spread in two indoor environments based on measurements in three bands from 12 GHz to 73 GHz using the multiband custom designed channel sounder developed at Durham University. Results are presented for a corridor environment and for a factory environment both in line of sight and non-line of sight set ups.

Wednesday, 18 March – 08:30-10:10

Joint AMTA/IRACON Session: Over-The-Air Testing of 5G Radios

Chairs: Wei Fan (Aalborg University, Denmark), Pekka Kyösti (Keysight Technologies & University of Oulu, Finland)

8:30 Examining and Optimising Far-Field Multi-Probe Anechoic Chambers for 5GNR OTA Testing of Massive MIMO Systems
Stuart F Gregson (Queen Mary, University of London, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Clive Parini (QMUL, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

Direct far-field (DFF) testing has become the de facto standard for sub-six GHz over the air (OTA) testing of the physical layer of radio access networks with the far-field multi-probe anechoic chamber (FF-MPAC) being especially widely deployed for the verification of massive multiple input multiple output (Massive MIMO) antennas in the presence of several users. The adoption of mm-wave bands within the fifth generation new radio (5G NR) specification has meant that, as these systems require the user equipment be placed in the far-field of the base transceiver station (BTS) antenna, either excessively large FF-MPAC test systems are required or, the user equipment is paced at range-lengths very much shorter than that suggested by the classical Rayleigh criteria. This paper explores range length effects on several communication system figures of merit and examines the consequences of testing within smaller enclosures. Results are presented and discussed.

8:50 Mid-field OTA RF Test Method: New Developments and Performance Comparison with the Compact Antenna Test Range (CATR)
Hongwei Kong (Keysight Technologies (China) Co., Ltd., China); Ya Jing (Keysight Technologies, China); Zhu Wen (Keysight Technologies Co. Ltd, China); Li Cao (Keysight Technologies (China) Co., Ltd., China)

In this paper, new mid-field developments, including the gray box approach and a mid-field prototype system covering both frequency range one and two, are presented to address challenges in 5G massive MIMO (mMIMO) base station (BS) OTA RF test. Simulations and measurements prove the effectiveness of the new developments. Further analysis of 3GPP BS OTA RF measurement metrics and performance requirements indicate that the mid-field system can measure most of those required metrics with enough dynamic range. Comparative test results with a CATR system using a commercial 5G BS prove that the mid-field system can achieve comparable test results as the CATR system. The comparability with the CATR system, the broad overage of 3GPP measurement metrics, and the compact size show that the mid-field system is an effective system for 5G mMIMO BS OTA RF test in both frequency range one and two.

9:10 On Noise and Interference Modeling for Over-the-air Testing of MIMO Terminals
Wei Fan (Aalborg University, Denmark); Pekka Kyösti (Keysight Technologies & University of Oulu, Finland); Yilin Ji and Gert Pedersen (Aalborg University, Denmark)

As the fifth generation (5G) ecosystem matures, the time for large-scale 5G radio commercialization is now. Over-the-air (OTA) radiated testing is seen to replace currently dominantly adopted cable conducted testing for upcoming radio systems due to integrated antenna designs. To properly evaluate performance of radio systems in fading channel conditions, it is typically needed to model the realistic signal, interference and noise conditions in the testing environment. However, interference and noise modeling is largely overlooked in the literature in OTA testing, since the discussion is typically focused on the signal alone. In this paper, interference and noise modeling in three OTA setups, including the multi-probe anechoic chamber (MPAC), radiated two stage (RTS) and reverberation chamber (RC) is discussed and summarized.

9:30 The Study of 5G Massive MIMO End-to-End MPAC Test Solution
Xiang Zhang (University of Posts and Telecommunications, China); Xiaolong Liu (Beijing University of Post Telecommunications, China); Guiming Wei (China Academy of Information and Communications Technology, China); Yichen Zhao (China Mobile Group Device Co., Ltd, China); Yuhang Guo (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications & Intel China Lab, China)

Due to the large demand of high data rate and low latency in mobile service, 5G network has been commercially deployed in the many countries, e. g., China, US, Korea and etc.. Massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) and hybrid beamforming techniques are observed as the key enhancement in the physical layer, and therefore, how to accurately measure the data throughput between massive MIMO gNB and user equipment (UE) under channel fading conditions has drawn much attentions in recent years. This paper introduces a novel simplified bidirectional 3D channel reproducing method for multi-probe anechoic chamber, in which the channel parameters are co-generated by the phase shift box and channel emulator. The simulation and test results show that the proposed method achieves similar performance compared with the whole channel emulator solution and meanwhile significantly reduces the cost of instruments.

9:50 Chamber Array Antenna Layout for Compact OTA Measurements
Mohammad Poordaraee (University of Twente, The Netherlands); Andrés Alayón Glazunov (University of Twente, The Netherlands & Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden)

An optimized irregular planar array antenna layout with uniform excitation of antenna elements is presented for Random-LOS OTA (Random Line-Of-Sight Over-The-Air) characterization setups. A plane wave is synthesized within a cylindrical 3D test zone at 2.7 GHz. The obtained thinned array achieves a 52% reduction of the number of elements and a 45% aperture size as compared to a uniform fully populated planar array with an inter-element distance of 0.93lambda, which is the optimum distance through [lambda/2,lambda] based on the presented cost function at this paper . The obtained maximum phase deviation and the maximum field amplitude deviation from the average field distribution in the 3D test zone of the proposed optimized chamber array antenna layout are approximately 6.4 degrees and 3.9 dB, respectively. The numerical computation of the radiation pattern of a 10*10 element uniform planar array antenna as AUT placed within the test zone was performed too.

10:10 Coffee Break

10:40 Measurement Characterization of Aperture Correction Technique for EMF
Johan Lundgren, Jakob Helander and Mats Gustafsson (Lund University, Sweden)

Techniques for accurate, robust and efficient over-the-air testing for devices in the next generation communication system are important. This work aims at presenting the use of an aperture calibration technique, through which field values and power density values are reconstructed at an arbitrary plane in the near-field from a measurement of a separate plane for devices operating in 28-60 GHz. The technique calibrates for the probe interaction, and for the measured position, providing promising results. Power density levels is important for electromagnetic field (EMF) compliance assessment of 5G. In this work the technique is utilized to reconstruct the power densities, as close as lambda/5, for three different radiating devices. The results are compared with simulations. An investigation into how the technique performs — for different frequencies, using synthetic input data, various grid sampling, noise and choice of numerical parameters – is carried out, showing the regions of applicability.

11:00 OTA Testing of Antennas & Devices Using Plane Wave Generator or Synthesizer
Francesco Scattone (Microwave Vision Group (MVG), Italy); Darko Sekuljica (MVG, Italy); Andrea Giacomini, Francesco Saccardi, Alessandro Scannavini and Lars Foged (Microwave Vision Italy, Italy); Evgueni Kaverine and Nicolas Gross (MVG Industries, France); Per Iversen (Orbit/FR, USA)

The Plane Wave Synthesizer (PWS) approximates the plane-wave condition and, thus, the Far-Field condition over a finite volume at a reduced distance called the Quiet Zone (QZ). It consists of an array of elements with suitably optimized complex excitation coefficients. The concept of a high performance, dual polarized PWS supporting up to 1:10 bandwidth was presented. A demonstrator of a dual polarized PWS has been designed, manufactured and tested in the 600MHz to 6GHz frequency range. In this paper, we report on the measured QZ performance of different implementations of the PWS demonstrator. QZ fields are determined within a volume by spherical NF measurements and back-propagation. It is shown experimentally that the QZ field uniformity can be trade-off with size. Results of the verification testing and comparison to spherical near field measurements are reported using electrically small devices.

11:20 Quiet Zone Verification of Plane Wave Synthesizer Using Polar Near-Field Scanner
Adam Tankielun, Anes Belkacem, Mustafa Akinci and Mert Celik (Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG, Germany); Hendrik Bartko (Rohde & Schwarz, Germany); Benoit Derat (Rohde & Schwarz, Spain)

5G active antenna system base stations operating in frequencies below 7.125 GHz (FR1) need to be tested using a cost-effective OTA measurement solution since traditional farfield antenna ranges are too large. Plane wave synthesizer (PWS) allows testing with far-field conditions at the near-field distance with the minimum system dimensions. Uniformity of the synthesized plane wave field in the quiet zone (QZ) is a key performance parameter of PWS. QZ verification setup using a polar near-field scanner and a vector network analyzer is presented with description of the main hardware components, instrument settings and correction techniques for raw measurement data. Various field uniformity metrics are defined and calculated for one measurement example. Measurement repeatability is also verified to evaluate stochastic errors in the verification.

11:40 3D Calibration of an Over-the-Air Testbed for GNSS CRPA Antenna Testing
Renato Zea (Fraunhofer IIS, Germany); Ramona Brochloss-Gerner (Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS, Germany); Mario Lorenz (Technische Universität Ilmenau, Germany); Markus Landmann (Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS, Germany); Alexander Rügamer (Fraunhofer IIS, Germany); Giovanni Del Galdo (Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS & Technische Universität Ilmenau, Germany)

This paper presents an approach to calibrate an OTA testbed to perform 3D full polarimetric wave field synthesis (WFS) to test controlled reception pattern antennas for global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). So far 2D and 2.5D WFS has been mostly used for single polarization OTA testing, nevertheless the level of accuracy on representing realworld scenarios becomes always a challenge, specially for GNSS testing, since the azimuth and elevation angles of the satellites with relation to the device under test can be accurately represented only in a 3D environment. Instead of using three electromagnetic (EM) field probes to perform the calibration of the three orthogonal field vectors (XYZ) for emulation of arbitrary polarized wave fields, this approach uses only one EM field probe to perform the entire calibration process. The limitations and accuracy of the proposed calibration procedure for full polarimetric WFS is shown and demonstrated in this contribution.

12:00 Comparing Options for 5G MIMO OTA Testing for Frequency Range One
Doug Reed and Alfonso Rodriguez-Herrera (Spirent Communications, USA); Jukka-Pekka Nuutinen (Spirent Communications, Finland)

MIMO OTA is the well-established and predominant method to test mobile devices with multiple antennas. The MIMO OTA approach subjects the device under test to challenging channel conditions (Multipath, Doppler, Interference, Correlation, Cross-Polarization), and the mobile device is tested in a wholistic way, i.e. chipset, antenna design, and enclosure. Additionally, multiple antenna connectors make standard conductive tests complicated and impractical. As new 5G NR devices enter the market, it becomes necessary to create a test methodology that can assess their performance in a standardized way using a MIMO OTA test.

Friday, 20 March – 08:30-10:10

IRACON Session: Spectrum Sharing: Challenges and Opportunities for 5G and Beyond

Chairs: Marina Barbiroli (University of Bologna, Italy), Doriana Guiducci (European Communications Office, Denmark), Sana Salous (Durham University, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

8:30 Channel Measurements and Path Loss Modeling for Indoor THz Communication
Naveed Ahmed Abbasi, Arjun Hariharan, Arun Moni Nair and Andreas Molisch (University of Southern California, USA)

To explore the eventual deployment of communication systems in Terahertz (THz) band (0.1-10 THz) frequencies, extensive channel measurement campaigns are essential. In this regard, we conducted an indoor line-of-sight (LoS) measurement campaign up to 5.5 m on a THz channel sounding system that covers 140-220 GHz. We use a frequencydomain channel sounder that is based on a vector network analyzer (VNA) and frequency extenders for these measurements. Using the log-distance path loss model, we estimate the values of path loss exponent and the fading distribution standard deviations. The power delay profile analysis of our measurements shows that there are negligible multipaths in the LoS channels for the current scenario. Our results provide a platform for future exploration of THz band communication in the 140-220 GHz frequency range.

8:50 Characterization of the Propagation Channel in Conference Room Scenario at 190 GHz
Diego Dupleich (Ilmenau University of Technology, Germany); Robert Müller and Sergii Skoblikov (TU Ilmenau, Germany); Markus Landmann (Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS, Germany); Giovanni Del Galdo (Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS & Technische Universität Ilmenau, Germany); Reiner S. Thomä (Ilmenau University of Technology, Germany)

In the present paper we introduce unique double-directional dual-polarized measurements at 190 GHz in a conference room with the aim of characterizing propagation for channel modelling and beam-forming applications. Assisted by ray-tracing, multiple scatterers have been identified, showing a rich multi-path environment. Investigations have shown that polarization diversity increases spatial diversity and a more deterministic modelling approach in polarization is needed to avoid overestimating polarization diversity gains.

9:10 Enabling RF Technologies for Spectrum Sharing
Mark Beach, Leo Laughlin, Eyad Arabi, Simon Wilson, Sarmad Ozan and Chris Gamlath (University of Bristol, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

Spectrum sharing has the potential to significantly increase spectrum utilization in underused spectrum by facili- tating shared access between primary/incumbent users and new commercial and private wireless services and applications. The citizen broadband radio service in the United States implements a basic form of dynamic spectrum access and is an example of spectrum sharing becoming a reality. Numerous regulatory changes in other countries are soon to follow. To make the most efficient use of spectrum in dynamic spectrum access regimes requires transceivers with excellent frequency agility, linearity, and selectivity, in order to opportunis- tically exploit available spectrum, whilst reducing interference and reducing the impact of interference. This article provides and brief overview of recently introduced spectrum sharing regulations, and discusses hardware requirements for current and future dynamic spectrum access. Recent advances in relevant RF technology enablers are presented, covering transmitter power amplifiers, multi-band receivers, self-interference cancellation, and reconfigurable antennas.

9:30 Assessing the Feasibility of the Spectrum Sharing Concepts for Private Industrial Networks Operating Above 5 GHz
Pekka Ojanen (Co-Worker Technology Finland, Finland); Seppo Yrjölä (Nokia & University of Oulu, Finland); Marja Matinmikko-Blue (University of Oulu, Centre for Wireless Communications, Finland)

Ongoing 5G deployment is bringing higher speeds, higher capacity, lower latency and greater reliability into connectivity enabling data sharing amongst participating components of industrial systems. The private industrial network opportunity for serving different verticals is largely dependent on the timely availability, quality and the cost of spectrum. The growing pressure to open the wireless market for location specific networks has resulted in new regional licensing and sharing-based models for spectrum management. This paper discusses private industrial network requirements for the spectrum management through a framework that can be used to assess the feasibility of the spectrum management approaches. Specifically, recent sharing concepts above 5 GHz in the US, Europe and four selected countries: Australia, Hong Kong, Japan and UK are analyzed from the viewpoint of private industrial networks. Each of the selected sharing concepts is a unique approach to make wideband spectrum available for other network providers than traditional MNO’s.

9:50 Regulatory Requirements and Characterisation of Transmitter and Receiver Parameters to Set a Novel Framework for Spectrum Sharing
Peter Faris and Doriana Guiducci (European Communications Office, Denmark)

Increase in demand for spectrum due to new radio technologies such as 5G creates challenges for regulatory bodies to enable spectrum sharing. Regulatory limits for new types of equipment need to be set to enable sharing between different systems in the same or adjacent frequency bands. A balanced approach between limits for transmitter and receiver parameters is necessary in this context. Such limits are typically derived from coexistence studies which need to be based on realistic assumptions of device performance to ensure overall efficient and interference-free use of spectrum. This paper discusses recent developments in European regulations within the Electronic Communications Committee (ECC) of the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) to enable new approaches for spectrum sharing in this context.

10:10 Coffee Break

10:40 A Study of an Environment Recognition Scheme Using WLAN CSI for Dynamic Spectrum Sharing
Tomoki Murakami (NTT Corporation, Japan); Shinya Otsuki (NTT Service Integration Laboratories, Japan); Tomoaki Ogawa (NTT, Japan); Yasushi Takatori (NTT Network Innovation Laboratories, Japan)

Diversifying devices and use scenarios have been focused on spectrum sharing according to communication environments in a target area. This paper proposes an environment recognition scheme for dynamic spectrum sharing systems. Our scheme dynamically uses CSI to allocate spectrum resources by recognizing the user location and the congestion rate in a target area. Furthermore, low-cost recognition can be expected with the IEEE 802.11ac WLAN CSI. To realize our scheme in realistic environments with actual devices, we developed a CSI monitoring system that uses the commodity WLAN devices, and we evaluated the environment recognition performance in our experimental measurements. We also prove the effectiveness of our scheme in experimental results of user locations and congestion rates.

11:00 A Kirchhoff Approximation Based Spectrum Availability Prediction Method at Millimeter Wave
Kosuke Murakami (Tokyo Institute Technology, Japan); Jun-ichi Takada, Kentaro Saito and Panawit Hanpinitsak (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan)

This paper proposes a frequency resource detection method for dynamic spectrum sharing (DSS) using the Kirchhoff approximation (KA) technique. KA is a well-known technique that can deal with the path over multiple buildings, which is the most dominant path in the suburban area. Although many researches have done for investigation of the prediction accuracy, little study has been done to clarify its applicability for frequency resource detection in millimeter wave (mmWave) band. The proposed method utilized ordinary KA with building information and elevation profile considering blockage sensitivity of mmWave band. Moreover, the proposed model was designed to calculate minimum path loss by selecting only a few building edges that significantly block the line-of-sight (LOS) ray. Through this implementation, it is possible to limit the overestimation of the path loss while keeping the value bigger than free-space path loss (FSPL) to ensure the transmission opportunity of the secondary systems.

11:20 Highly-Reconfigurable Time-based Radiating Systems and Their Optimization
Diego Masotti (University of Bologna, Italy); Lorenzo Poli (ELEDIA Research Center, University of Trento, Italy); Mazen Al Shanawani (University of Bologna, Italy); Paolo Rocca (University of Trento, Italy); Alessandra Costanzo (DEI, University of Bologna, Italy)

This work aims at underlying the high reconfiguration capability of time-modulated arrays (TMAs) and their potential use in future 5G networks, as well as at stressing the need for a rigorous design tool when the optimization of these arrays is performed. The architectural simplicity of TMAs offers, as a counterpart, a complex dynamic radiating mechanism whose accurate description can significantly impact on the optimum solution. For this reason, a review of the available simulation strategies of TMAs is provided, mainly focusing on a recently proposed tool able to take into account all the dynamic linear and nonlinear phenomena occurring during a time-based radiation.

11:40 Joint Statistics of Urban Clutter Loss and Building Entry Loss at 3.5 GHz and 27 GHz – From Measurement to Modelling
Richard Rudd (Plum Consulting Ltd, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Xiaomin Meng, Victor Ocheri, Dehao Wu and Maziar Nekovee (University of Sussex, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

Empirical propagation models have been developed within the ITU-R for building entry loss and for urban clutter loss. At present these mechanisms are considered separately, but, in practice, will generally be combined. Initial measurements at 35 GHz and 27 GHz are reported here which suggest that the effects cannot be considered as multiplicative, and a simple asymptotic model is proposed for their combination.

12:00 Building Entry Loss and Clutter Loss at 26 GHz
Sana Salous (Durham University, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Belen Montenegro Villacieros (Formerly JRC, Italy); James Bishop (Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Italy)

This paper presents results of building entry loss measurements, clutter loss measurements and combined building entry loss with clutter loss into a modern building at 26 GHz using a custom designed channel sounder developed at Durham University. Comparative measurements indicate that the median of building entry loss is about 42.6 dB when measured over a cluttered path and 42.9 dB when measured from outside the building. This indicates that the median building entry loss can be estimated from measurements over a cluttered path.