1st TM – Lille, France, May 30 – June 1, 2016

TD Title Author(s) Abstract WG(s)
TD(16)01002 Impact of antenna position on performances in relay-assisted network Jean-Marc Conrat, Issam Maaz, Jean-Christophe Cousin This paper compares the performance of a relay-assisted network to the performance given by a classical macrocell network. The capacity enhancement provided by a relaying system as function of the relay antenna height and the propagation environment surrounding the antenna is analysed. The analyses are based on the theoretical Shannon capacity equation and consider both measured path losses and calibrated path loss models. By assuming a decode-and forward scheme, a full-duplex protocol and an optimized relay location, a 30 % improvement in the macrocell capacity is shown. Increasing the relay antenna height may increase the relay capacity up to 20 % in suburban or moderate urban environments. EWG-RA
TD(16)01003 Radio Channel Measurements in Body-to-Body Communications in Different Scenarios Slawomir J. Ambroziak, Luis M. Correia, Kenan Turbic This paper presents body-to-body radio channel measurements at the 2.45 GHz band, for different body motion scenarios and on-body antenna placements, and both indoor and outdoor environments. Measurement equipment, investigated scenarios and considered environments are described, an initial analysis of results being presented. The mean path loss and the standard deviation depend on the mutual location of transmitting and receiving antennas, type of dynamic scenarios and investigated environments. In general, the lowest mean path loss value (below 57 dB) is obtained for the scenario where two bodies are walking in the same direction along parallel routes and the distance in between bodies equals 1 m; in contrast, the highest value (over 70 dB) is observed for the scenario where both bodies depart from each other being turned back to back. Moreover, the highest standard deviation value (over 13 dB) is obtained for scenarios with antennas mounted on the wrists, which are the most movable parts of the body while walking, and the lowest value (around 2 dB) has been measured for antennas mounted on the head. WG1
TD(16)01004 Initial Results from Millimeter-Wave Outdoor-to-Indoor Propagation Channel Measurements at 3, 10 and 17 GHz Cheikh A. L. Diakhate, Jean-Marc Conrat, Jean-Christophe Cousin The intended use of Millimeter-Wave (mmW) systems for the next generation (5G) of mobile wireless communication systems is mainly motivated by the need for higher transmission data rates (multiple Gigabit-per-second (Gbps)) and the necessity to sustain the explosion of the data traffic predicted in the horizon of 2020. These rather ambitious goals are thought to be achievable thanks to the large amount of bandwidth available in this spectrum range. Studies in this present paper focus on the characterization of the radio propagation channel for these frequency bands in an Outdoor-to-Indoor (O2I) scenario. Measurements using omnidirectional and directional antennas were conducted at 3, 10 and 17 GHz with a wideband channel sounder. The measured channel complex transfer functions (CTFs) or complex impulse responses (CIRs) were then used to calculate the channel power delay profiles (PDPs) or power spectral densities (PSDs) in order to estimate propagation channel parameters such as building penetration loss and delay spread and their frequency-dependency as well. At 17 GHz, a method for synthesizing omnidirectional channel characteristics from directional measurements is presented and its validity is also assessed by comparing the yielded results to omnidirectional measurements performed at the same frequency. WG1/WG2
TD(16)01005 Constructive Interference through Symbol Level Precoding for Multi-Level Modulation Maha Alodeh, Symeon Chatzinotas, Bjorn Ottersten The constructive interference concept in the downlink of multiple-antenna systems is addressed in this paper. The concept of the joint exploitation of the channel state information (CSI) and data information (DI) is discussed. Using symbol-level precoding, the interference between data streams is transformed Under certain conditions into useful signal that can improve the signal to interference noise ratio (SINR) of the downlink transmissions. In the previous work, different constructive interference precoding techniques have been proposed for the MPSK scenario. In this context, a novel constructive interference precoding technique that tackles the transmit power minimization (min-power) with individual SINR constraints at each user\’s receivers is proposed assuming MQAM modulation. Extensive simulations are performed to validate the proposed technique. WG2
TD(16)01006 Reducing the impact of solar energy shortages on the wireless access network powered by a PV panel system and the power grid Margot Deruyck, Daniela Renga, Michela Meo, Luc Martens, Wout Joseph In this study, the potential of applying different strategies to reduce the energy consumption of a wireless access network, powered by a photovoltaic panel system, during energy shortages is investigated. The goal is to reduce the amount of energy that should be bought from the raditional energy grid during a renewable energy shortage. Three different strategies are compared and the results are looking very promising. Depending on the strategy, up to 72% less energy should be bought compared to the fully operational network for a worst case scenario and a time period of 1 week. However, applying such a strategy has also its influence on the network performance. The influence on the user coverage is limited, with a reduction of 3% at maximum, but the capacity offered by the network decreases significantly with 51% up to even 71%. WG2/WG3
TD(16)01007 Impact of Electromagnetic Interference on Vehicular Antenna Performance Irfan Mehmood Yousaf, Buon Kiong Lau, Björn Bergqvist Due to the increasing number of infotainment and safety functions in vehicles, the need for reliable communication link is becoming very critical. Modern vehicles are equipped with many electronic devices that emit electromagnetic interference (EMI), which can severely affect vehicular antenna performance, and hence link performance. In this work, the impact of EMI on vehicular antenna performance is studied. Specifically, full-wave car simulations of the coupling of EMI into antennas at the GSM900 band is presented as a case study to demonstrate the important need to address EMI issues in vehicular antenna design and implementation. WG1
TD(16)01008 On Characteristic Modes of MIMO Terminals With Real Components Zachary T. Miers, Augustine Sekyere, John Ako Enohnyaket, Max Landaeus, Buon Kiong Lau The Theory of Characteristic Modes is capable of facilitating the design of high-quality antennas through providing the characteristic modes (CMs) inherent to a structure. The CMs will change if the structure is altered; this property has been used to adapt terminal antennas, enabling good MIMO performance in compact structures. Previously these designs focused on altering the terminal structure without consideration into the effects of real internal components on the desired CMs. Components such as touch screens, cameras, microphones, and batteries will change the CMs of the structure, which can in turn lead to the CM-based MIMO antennas to become non-orthogonal or non-resonant. Until now, relatively little work has been done to analyze the impact of these internal components on CM-based antennas. This article studies the effects internal components on the CMs of a MIMO terminal chassis, and how these effects can be mitigated. WG1
TD(16)01009 Analysis of f-OFDM as a candidate waveform for 5G Kun Chen Hu and Ana Garcia Armada Machine type communications (MTC) have been growing significantly in recent years and this tendency is foreseen to be kept in the near future playing an increasingly important role in the industry. The signals used for MTC will coexist with the current and next generation cellular systems. Therefore it is of interest to study how they can perform jointly and the viability of coexistence of signals from both systems. We focus in one of the new waveforms being discussed for 5G, namely on filtered-OFDM (f-OFDM), along with traditional OFDM. The interference and Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) are analysed for both types of signals and the expression of the SINR is found allowing us to compare the behavior of OFDM and f-OFDM in these circumstances. Some simulations are shown to validate the theoretical analysis and explore some foreseen MTC scenarios. EWG-RA
TD(16)01010 Scenario Partitioning for High Speed Railway Bo Ai, Ke Guan, Ruisi He, Yan Li, Jingya Yang, Qi Wang, Zhangdui Zhong, Hua Song Radio wave propagation scene partitioning is necessary for wireless channel modeling. As far as we know, there are no standards of scene partitioning for high speed rail (HSR) scenarios, and therefore, we propose the radio wave propagation scene partitioning scheme for HSR scenarios in this paper. Based on our measurements along Wuhan-Guangzhou HSR, Zhengzhou-Xian passenger dedicated line, Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan passenger dedicated line and Beijing-Tianjin intercity line in China, whose operation speeds are above 300km/h, and based on the investigations on Beijing South Railway Station, Zhengzhou Railway Station, Wuhan Railway Station, Changsha Railway Station, Xian North Railway Station, Shijiazhuang North Railway Station, Taiyuan Railway Station and Tianjin Railway Station, we obtain an overview of HSR propagation channels and record many valuable measurement data for HSR scenarios. On the basis of these measurements and investigations, we partitioned the HSR scene into twelve scenarios. Further work on theoretical analysis based on radio wave propagation mechanisms, such as reflection and diffraction, may lead us to develop the standard of radio wave propagation scene partitioning for HSR. Our work can also be used as a basis for the wireless channel modeling and the selection of some key techniques for HSR systems. WG1
TD(16)01011 Dedicated Social Network Architecture for Rail Traffic Systems Bo Ai, Ke Guan, Yan Li, Ruiqi Zhang, Yue Zhao, Guoyu Ma, Zhangdui Zhong, Lei Xiong, Jianwen Ding, Hua Song With the rapid development of high-speed railway, subway, city railway, intercity rail, how to ensure the reliability, safety and comfort of such rail traffic transportation systemscomes to be the focus. Meanwhile, the social network service (SNS) is advancing so fast all over the world. How to combine the characteristics of rail traffic transportation systems with that of the social networks, which enable them to play an important role in the rail traffic operations, will become one of the core problems in the future development of intelligent rail traffic transportation systems. Based on the business requirements,the reliable transmission of information andthe characteristics of the rail traffic transportation systems, this paper proposes a new concept of “dedicated social network” whose information are exchanged within the internal intranet.A novelsocial network architecture for rail traffic transportation system is proposed, including the SNS Management Center, a dedicated social network for internal information exchanges amongthe drivers, the dispatchers and the train control center, the SNS for the information exchanges among the train marshals, the crews and the passengers. The proposed framework attemptsto exploitsocial networks inan active mannerin the field of rail traffic transportation systems to make the system more safe, secure, reliable, comfortable and humane. WG3/EWG-IoT
TD(16)01012 Communications Network Architecture for Future Railway Bo Ai, Ke Guan, Yan Li, Qi Wang, Ruiqi Zhang, Yue Zhao, Guo-Yu Ma, Zhangdui Zhong, Hua Song The future development of railway is highly desired to evolve into a new era where infrastructure, trains, travelers and goods will be increasingly interconnected to provide high comfort, with optimized door-to-door mobility at higher safety. For this vision, it is required to realize a seamless high-data rate wireless connectivity for railways. To improve safety and comfort of future railways, wireless communications for railways are required to evolve from only voice and traditional train control signaling services, to various high-data-rate services including critical high-definition (HD) video and other more bandwidth-intensive passenger services, such as on-board and wayside HD video surveillance, on-board real-time high-data-rate services, train multimedia dispatching video stream, railway mobile ticketing, and the Internet of Things for railways. Corresponding mobile communications network architecture under various railway scenarios including inter-wagon, intra-wagon, inside station, train-to-infrastructure and infrastructure-to-infrastructure are proposed in this paper. Wireless coverage based on massive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) for railway stations and train wagons is proposed to fulfill the requirement of high-data-rate and high spectrum efficiency. The technical challenges brought by the massive MIMO technique are discussed as well. WG3
TD(16)01013 Dense Multipath Component Parameter Estimation in 11GHz-band Indoor Environment Kentaro Saito, Takada Jun-ichi, Minseok KIM In the next-generation mobile communication system, the utilization of higher frequency band above 10 GHz becomes the hot research topic because it has the potential to improve the network capacity drastically by utilizing the available wide band spectrum. However in the higher frequency bands, in addition to the higher propagation loss, the diffuse scattering of propagation wave is thought to affect the multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) channel characteristic more significantly. In this paper, the 11 GHz band MIMO channel measurements were conducted in a Line-of-Sight (LoS) indoor environment to clarify the characteristics of diffuse scatters in the higher frequency band. The frequency, angular, and the polarization domain Dense Multipath Component (DMC) propagation parameters were estimated by using RiMAX-based estimator. The measurement result shows that there was a strong DMC due to the diffuse scattering from the floor and the ceiling. The DMC had the directional and the polarization dependencies that were different from RiMAX DMC model. The result will be expected to be utilized for the novel MIMO channel model proposal in the higher frequency band that includes the DMC contribution. WG1/WG2
TD(16)01014 Testing OpenWSN and Contiki OSs Performances on OpenMote Platform Gordana Gardašević, Dragan Vasiljević, Mladen Veletić Recently, the OpenMote platform has drawn significant attention to Internet of Things (IoT) research community. The OpenMote is a representative of new generation open-hardware platforms that is particularly adapted to the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) aplications. The OpenMote-based IoT testbed at the premises of University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Electrical Engineering consists of 10 nodes. We tested the functionalities of two different operating systems for IoT applications: OpenWSN and Contiki. EWG-IoT
TD(16)01015 Investigating the angular dependence of diffuse scattering correlation Yang Miao, Quentin Gueuning, Claude Oestges Diffuse scattering (DS), mostly originated at rough surfaces, can be modeled by effective roughness (ER) models. In ER models, the object surface is divided into tiles and the DS field amplitude associated with each tile is given. Assuming the phases associated with different tiles are independent, this TD investigates the spatial correlation of phases for a single tile when the receive antenna moves relative to the object surface. It is found that the spatial correlation can be modeled as the damped cosine correlation function, and the function parameters are dependent on the angle between the movement direction and the perpendicular direction to the tile surface. Different spatial resolutions of the movement and different frequencies are analyzed. WG1/WG2
TD(16)01016 Measuring and Modelling of Specular Reflections at mm-Wave Frequencies Angelos A. Goulianos This paper presents a study on the specular reflections obtained from various building materials at 60 GHz. The results presented here-in are based on a large-scale measurement campaign undertaken by the Keysight wideband channel sounder. The measurements are targeting the investigation of specular reflections and diffused scattering in mm-wave frequencies. More specifically, three different types of building materials are investigated; a rough wall, a smooth wall and a window surface. Results indicate that the Nakagami-m distribution can be employed for modelling the fading instigated by both rough and smooth surfaces, by simply adjusting the m-parameter of the distribution. Furthermore, a study on the depolarization properties of different surface types indicate that polarization diversity can potentially enhance the performance of mm-wave receivers, especially under non-Line of Sight (nLoS) channel propagation conditions. WG1
TD(16)01017 Physical-Statistical Modeling of Dynamic Indoor Power Delay Profiles Evgenii Vinogradov, Aliou Bamba, Wout Joseph, Claude Oestges This paper presents a physical-statistical radio channel power delay profiles model for room-to-room communication systems combining the Room Electromagnetic Theory for modeling deterministic channel components with a geometry based stochastic channel model with time-variant statistics for modeling stochastic components. The deterministic channel component, i.e., mean power delay spectrum, consists of specularly reflected paths plus diffuse components due to scattering and diffraction. The specular components are modeled with a set dirac function whereas the diffuse components modeling approach is a room electromagnetic theory-based model. Dynamic indoor communication channels are characterized by a non-stationary time- and delay fading process due to changes in the environment.We analyze and model the time-delay variability of channels using K-factor for small-scale variations and the t-location scale distribution parameters for large-scale variations. It turns out that these parameters cannot be assumed to be constant in time and delay. After modeling of time-delay variations of the first order statistics, we generate channel realizations with appropriate second order statistics. As the result, the presented model enables to describe the evolution of the power delay profile in the time domain. WG1
TD(16)01018 Analysis of Deployment Options to Enhance Horizontal Information Sharing and Networking in Internet of Things Andrej Mihailovic, Marko Simeunovic, Milica Pejanovic-Djurisic Proliferations and uses of Internet of Things (IoT) services is greatly underlined by purpose-based and independent compositions of IoT eco-systems. This trend is commonly encountered in large scale environments of IoT deployment such as Smart Cities. Consequently the ongoing expansions of IoT services has affirmed a specific property of their compositions, that is, verticality of IoT eco-systems. It has resulted in shielded information flows for control, management and data and meant a web-level visibility of IoT data. Following the recent initiatives towards horizontality-enabling solutions for IoT, our work revisits some basic assumptions encountered when an IoT system is built from scratch. These are relevant when considering various deployment possibilities, applications, use of equipment, data provisioning/sharing and facilitation of networking tools for specifics of IoT communications. We give an analysis of two possible research and deployment paths for enhancing the horizontal information sharing and networking. One is based on default view of the integration of stand-alone devices and small scale IoT networks into IP networking suite with scalable adaptations of discovery options such as DNS and APIs. The other one takes a radically different approach based on novel Information Centric Networking paradigm, specifically Named-Data Networking. It applies it as a long term research direction for horizontal data distributions and IoT search-and-discovery models in future large scale deployment environments such as Smart Cities. EWG-IoT
TD(16)01019 An Extension of the RiMAX Algorithm for Ultra-Wideband Channels Brecht Hanssens, Emmeric Tanghe, Davy P. Gaillot, Martine Liénard, Claude Oestges, David Plets, Luc Martens, Wout Joseph This work presents an extension of the high-resolution RiMAX multipath estimation framework, enabling the analysis of frequency-dependent propagation parameters for Ultra-Wideband (UWB) channel modeling. Due to the fact that RiMAX is a narrowband algorithm, it does not account for the frequency-dependency of the radio channel or the environment. As such, the impact of certain materials in which these systems operate can no longer be considered constant with respect to frequency, preventing an accurate estimation of multipath parameters for UWB applications. In addition, the antenna array responses of transmitter and receiver will no longer be frequency-independent, and can vary significantly over the UWB bandwidth. In order to track both frequency-dependent as well as frequency-independent propagation parameters, an UWB-RiMAX algorithm was developed that can process UWB measurement data. In contrast with executing the RiMAX algorithm in multiple UWB sub-bands, the advantage of our approach is that the angle of departure, angle of arrival and time of arrival are kept constant over the entire UWB bandwidth in the initialization procedure. This will ensure that geometrical propagation parameters cannot appear or disappear from one sub-band onto the next. Our newly designed algorithm was then tested with synthetic radio channel models in an indoor environment, generated with a ray-tracer and well known models describing the dense multipath components (DMC) behavior. The UWB-RiMAX framework makes it possible to re-evaluate common radio channel parameters for DMC in the wideband scenario, and to extend the well-known deterministic propagation model comprising of SMC alone, towards a hybrid model containing the stochastic contributions from distributed diffuse scattering as well. WG1
TD(16)01020 Spectrum sharing in DTT band for IoT Services provission Kevin Llamas, Gerardo Martínez, Narcis Cardona nternet of things (IoT) will offer a new and revolutionary way to connect objects and/or devices to improve the day to day lives of citizens around the world. International Telecommunications Union (ITU) estimates that 25 billion devices will be connected to the internet by 2020. Nowadays, new research being carried out to define the technology and frequency bands for IoT. Narrow band LTE (NB-LTE) and the UHF band could be an interesting solution for deployment of IoT. In this paper we propose the use of white spaces in the DTT band (TV-White-Spaces) for spectrum sharing between DTT and IoT technologies. The scenarios consider a DVB-T2 network offering fixed rooftop reception as a primary service, and a NB-LTE network as a secondary service. The results have been obtained by laboratory measurements using professional equipment. We analyse the effect of the duty cycle on protection ratios, as well as peak rate and battery life for IoT devices. Our results provide the technical restrictions for the NB-LTE small cell and device, mainly on the maximum allowable Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) that could transmit on the DTT band in terms of carrier separation, from co-channel and adjacent channel. WG3/EWG-IoT
TD(16)01021 Virtual multi-antenna array for estimating the angle-of-arrival of a RF transmitter Francois Quitin, Vivek Govindaraj, Xionghu Zhong and Wee Peng Tay We consider the problem of angle-of-arrival (AoA) estimation of a RF transmitter using a mobile receiver. By considering the successive packets received along the receiver trajectory, we implicitly create a virtual MIMO array, which allows us to utilize conventional MIMO theory for AoA estimation. For this method to work, the first major challenge is the need to separate the phase offset due to receiver movement from the phase offset due to local oscillator (LO) offset. Two approaches are proposed to do this: i) a stop-and-start approach, where the receiver first stands still long enough to estimate the LO offset and then estimates the AoA while moving, and ii) a joint nonlinear estimator where the AoA and LO offset are estimated simultaneously. The second major difficulty is the need to estimate the receiver’s relative position with sub-wavelength accuracy. We solve this by using a three-dimensional inertial measurement unit, which provides reasonably good relative position estimates if the measurement period is sufficiently short. We provide simulation results to evaluate the performances of both AoA estimation methods. Experimental results based on a software-defined radio platform in an anechoic chamber show the feasibility of the proposed method. EWG-LOC
TD(16)01022 On stochastically emulating continuous scattering structures by discrete sources for OTA testing of DuT with highly directive antennas Wim Kotterman, Markus Landmann, and Giovanni del Galdo Considered is OTA testing of future generation communications systems, especially of Devices-under-Test of large electrical size and with highly directive antenna patterns. For the simulations, the channel is assumed to be dominated by a single angularly-continuous scattering cluster. Two ways of stochastic cluster emulation by discrete incident fields, modelled as plane waves, are investigated. In cases of angular symmetry, initial Doppler phases have large influence on received power, which could pose a problem to calibration. For SCME-like emulation methods, stochastic variation could be reduced by selecting Doppler phases. For the more practical MPAC method, such a reduction was achieved by introducing asymmetry. Strong systematic variations of received power against cluster orientation arise through the discrete nature of the sources, with the fewer the sources, the stronger the variations. EWG-OTA
TD(16)01023 A Medical Cloud Jurij Tasic, Marjan Gusev, Sasko Ristov Recent trends and development in the production of various wearable biosensors enable a lot of medical and environment information to be available for each human being. Processing of data coming from these sensors, extracting valuable information and analyzing the electronic health record with a sufficient expertise is a complex processing task, which requires more resources than an ordinary mobile device or personal computer can perform with the available technology today. In this paper, we propose a cloud-based solution to deal with these challenges. The design includes use of wearable biosensors, personalized medical devices as transmitters of sensor data and the cloud that delivers various healthcare services over the Internet. A medical cloud hosts a specially developed application, which communicates with medical devices and sensors from one side and caregivers, such as a medical institution. The services include analysis by an expert system, and also by a medical expert in case of an alert for detected problems analyzing the current state by received sensor data. EWG-IoT
TD(16)01024 Effects of Hyper-Dense Small-Cell Network Deployments on a Realistic Urban Environment Dennis M. Rose, Thomas Kürner In this paper, a realistic urban scenario for a hyper-dense small-cell network deployment is presented, using full 3D building models and 3D ray-optical pathloss predictions. This network is compared to a similar dimensioned 3GPP-like deployment, to emphasize the correlations and the differences between these two environments. Furthermore, different expansion stages of the small-cell deployments in both environments are discussed with respect to the coverage and interference situations. WG3
TD(16)01025 A Data Traffic Steering Algorithm for IEEE 802.11p/LTE Hybrid Vehicular Networks Nils Dreyer, Andreas Möller, Zeeshan Hameed Mir, Fethi Filali, Thomas Kürner Reliable vehicular communication is considered an important precondition for future intelligent transportation systems (ITSs). Recently, a combination of ad-hoc direct communication and infrastructure based cellular networks are considered to enable seamless connectivity and sufficient Quality of Service (QoS) for all types of vehicular applications. Within this paper a novel algorithm to enable data traffic steering between ad-hoc IEEE 802.11p based dedicated short range communication and LTE for Vehicle-to-X (V2X) communication is presented. Based on the system-level evaluation of cell loads and radio channel congestion the network based performance of the proposed algorithm is analyzed and compared to the conservative approach of using exclusively IEEE 802.11p for message dissemination. First simulations results in a realistic urban intersection scenario show significant improvement of the quality of service. WG3/EWG-IoT
TD(16)01026 Spectrum sharing in 5G networks: the Italian first world’s Licensed Shared Access pilot in the 2.3-2.4 GHz band Doriana Guiducci, Claudia Carciofi, Valeria Petrini, Eva Spina, Pravir Chawdhry In the past, new cellular spectrum has typically been made available through refarming of spectrum. For 5G systems, a part of the solution for spectrum scarcity is expected to lie in millimetre-wave communication, in particular for small cells and low mobility usage. Wide Area cell types, however, will need further spectrum resources below 6 GHz and that is where the National Regulation Authorities (NRAs) are currently running out of options. Spectrum sharing is contemplated as the primary candidate in addressing this issue. The Licensed Shared Access (LSA) in an emerging concept for spectrum sharing under an exclusive license regime. In the context of identifying additional spectrum for future 5G networks, LSA offers to administrations a complementary regulatory approach to the traditional exclusive authorised access for mobile network, noting that the traditional approach will obviously continue to be essential to meet the future demand for mobile broadband. At the end of 2015, the Italian Ministry of Economic Development and the joint Research Centre of the European Commission started a pilot project on the sharing of radio spectrum at 2.3 GHz band on the LSA under the technical coordination of Fondazione Ugo Bordoni. This contribution gives a description of the pilot testbed architecture, the sharing framework and the rules currently defined within the LSA pilot to protect the incumbent users in Italy. Sharing conditions are investigated through measurements and simulations. WG3
TD(16)01027 EMF exposure assessment in a real femtocell environment under 5G paradigm Doriana Guiducci, Claudia Carciofi, Simona Valbonesi, Valeria Petrini, Marina Barbiroli, Eva Spina, Pravir Chawdhry The new 5G network infrastructure foresees the employment of mobile base stations even more closer to the user in order to improve the performance both in term of quality of experience and energy consumption. At the same time spectrum scarcity is one of the key issues that need to be faced in 5G network and innovative approaches to access the spectrum based on spectrum sharing are being considered. In this new context of network densification the EMF exposure is an interesting topic. This contribution addressed the EMF assessment in a real dense indoor femtocell environment deployed for the LSA pilot purposed in the city of Rome. A real LTE network operating in time division duplexing (TDD) composed by two outdoor nodes and four femtocell indoor nodes, is being operated at the premises of the Italian Ministry of Economic Development in the 2300-2400 MHz, as the basis of the world’s first pilot on the Licensed Shared Access (LSA) approach. An extensive measurement campaign has been performed to characterize EMF exposure in this real femtocell environment. Both broadband and narrowband electrical field measurements, have been performed in different operating conditions of the LTE nodes. Results shows that the indoor electric field level is always much lower than the thresholds imposed by Italian law which are far more stringent than the limits commonly adopted worldwide. WG3
TD(16)01028 Waveform Design Principles and Comparison of New Generation Waveform Candidates for 5G and Beyond Berker Pekoz, Ahmet Yazar, and Huseyin Arslan Various emerging applications in future wireless networks require rethinking the access techniques not only from the throughput perspective but also ensure satisfaction of a wide variety of requirements under the same framework such as achieving higher data rates, lower latency, or supporting a large number of terminals and multiple antenna systems. Although traditional Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) continues to be included in various standards at this day; in addition to its unsuitability with asynchronous networks and radios which will be common in the future, the limitations which render it unfavorable for dynamic spectrum access and cognitive radio applications stand in front of its existence in future technologies. The main goal of this study is to pave the way towards rethinking the waveform design by providing the main components of a wireless communication system. The concept of the multidimensional lattice is introduced, exploiting the angular dimension that opens a new horizon in research for 5G technology and beyond. The study proposes a new way of waveform design procedure that considers the multidimensional grid, which is essential for exploiting the opportunities in spatial domain effectively. In addition, the waveform design criteria for various applications and frequency bands are presented. Furthermore, some potential candidate 5G waveforms are examined and various comparisons are carried out based on selected criteria. Moreover, assessments about future hybrid and adaptive waveform solutions are discussed. WG2
TD(16)01029 LTE-ADVANCED RADIO AND NETWORK OPTIMIZATION: BASIC COVERAGE AND INTERFERENCE CONSTRAINTS Fernando J. Velez, Sofia Sousa, Jessica Acevedo Flores, Daniel Robalo, Albena Mihovska, Ramjee Prasad The unplanned deployment of small cells is leading to high levels of intra- and inter-tier interference. An insight on how to manage the interference is vital to reach a significant capacity improvement through ultra-dense networks. This paper considers Heterogeneous Networks with Carrier Aggregation, where the macro cells operate at 800 MHz to provide coverage and SCs at 2.6 GHz provide throughput enhancement at hotspots, including and outdoor-to-indoor scenario. We analyze in detail the values of the carrier-to-noise-plus-interference ratio from/at the UEs for bandwidths of 10 and 20 MHz a. A rapid decay in the throughput for higher frequency for the pico cells < 300m, is observed. Broader bandwidths allow for doubling of the capacity. A clear decrease of the supported throughput is verified for the highest coverage distances in Non-Line-of-Sight propagation conditions. One concludes that Outdoor-to-Indoor coverage corresponds to slightly worst coverage accompanied by less interference. WG3
TD(16)01030 BASIC LIMITS FOR LTE-ADVANCED RADIO AND HETNET OPTIMIZATION IN THE OUTDOOR-TO-INDOOR SCENARIO Fernando J. Velez, Sofia Sousa, Albena Mihovska, Ramjee Prasad The unplanned deployment of small cells is leading to high levels of intra- and inter-tier interference. An insight on how to manage the interference is vital to reach a significant capacity improvement through ultra-dense networks. This paper considers Heterogeneous Networks with Carrier Aggregation, where the macro cells operate at 800 MHz to provide coverage and SCs at 2.6 GHz provide throughput enhancement at hotspots, including and outdoor-to-indoor scenario. We analyze in detail the values of the carrier-to-noise-plus-interference ratio from/at the UEs for bandwidths of 10 and 20 MHz a. A rapid decay in the throughput for higher frequency for the pico cells < 300m, is observed. Broader bandwidths allow for doubling of the capacity. A clear decrease of the supported throughput is verified for the highest coverage distances in Non-Line-of-Sight propagation conditions. One concludes that Outdoor-to-Indoor coverage corresponds to slightly worst coverage accompanied by less interference. WG3
TD(16)01031 Impact of Transmitter Power in Packet Schedulers Performance in LTE HetNets Rui R. Paulo, Fernando J. Velez, Giuseppe Piro This paper considers the open source LTE-Sim framework to study the behaviour and performance of six packet schedulers in a heterogeneous network with HeNBs. Two different scenarios have been considered. The first one is a homogeneous scenario where only a video application is used, whereas in the heterogeneous scenario the impact of the cohabitation between the mobile video and best effort applications is studied. Also middle and low levels of interference are addressed. The combination of different scenarios and interference levels create four different case studies. Additionally, the impact of adopting six different schedulers is analyzed. Our approach consists of evaluating the variation of the goodput, packet loss ratio (PLR) and delay while varying the HeNBs transmitter power from 0 to 20 dBm. In the homogeneous scenario, the network performance is very similar for the two interference levels. For the heterogeneous scenario, however, the behaviour is different. With middle interference level, the Frame Level Scheduler (FLS) and Exponential Rule Scheduler present a very similar behaviour, with slight advantage for the FLS (with a maximum average goodput 29.2 Mb/s for transmitter power of 16 dBm). In turn, with low interference level, although these two schedulers have the same behaviour in terms of goodput and PLR, the PLR is lower than the targeted value of 1 % suggested by 3GPP only for HeNBs transmitter powers lower than 9 dBm. In none of the scenarios (and interference levels) the 3GPP limit of 150 ms for the maximum delay has been overcame. The maximum values for the average goodput (or the minimum values for the average PLR) have been obtained for HeNBs transmitter power considerably lower than 20 dBm, which gives an opportunity to reduce the CO2 footprint from 4G networks. WG3
TD(16)01032 Experimental Characterization of WSNs Applied to Swarms of Aquatic Surface Drones Fernando J. Velez, Aleksandra Nadziejko, Anders Lyhne Christensen, Sancho Oliveira, Tiago Rodrigues, Vasco Costa, Miguel Duarte, Fernando Silva, Jorge Gomes The aim of the HANCAD project is to develop and study technologies and communication protocols for swarms of inexpensive aquatic surface drones. The long-term goal is to enable maritime tasks such as sea-border patrolling and environmental monitoring, while keeping the cost each drone low enough to facilitate large-scale deployment. The exchange of information between the drones within the swarm is essential in several mission scenarios. Our current prototypes use a Raspberry Pi 2 as the on-board computer, and we are experimenting with XBee-PRO S1 hardware to allow for low-power, long-range communication. In this paper, we report on preliminary field trials conducted to validate the potential of the proposed solution, in terms of coverage, range, and multi-hop capabilities, in maritime scenarios. EWG-IoT
TD(16)01033 Generality of Map-Based Model Aki Hekkala, Pekka Kyösti The simulations with regards to the radio channel are currently most often performed using statistical approach. When using a deterministic model like the map-based model the environment is taken into account; thus, e.g., the link simulation is specific for the used transceivers’ locations. However, to have the information for that specific link is not the only reason to use the map-based model. More importantly, the map-based model is used because it inherently fulfils the 5G requirements like spatial continuity, large bandwidth, large antenna arrays, etc. This TD demonstrates that the map-based model can be used to have the statistical information, i.e. it is general enough for the simulations even using a single map but varying the transceivers’ locations. The deployment of transceivers on a map affects substantially the radio channel characteristics and random dropping of UEs on the map will lead to versatile channel parameters. In this contribution we show by few example cases that the statistical variation of channel parameters is achieved. WG1
TD(16)01034 MIMO Channel Reconstruction from Lower Dimensional Multiple Antenna Measurements Rimvydas Aleksiejunas A method for reconstructing multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel correlation matrices from lower dimensional channel measurements is presented. Exploiting the symmetry of correlation matrix structure enables reproducing higher dimensional MIMO channel matrices from available lower order measurements. This leads to practically important applications allowing prediction of higher dimensional MIMO system capacity. In particular, we study Kronecker-type MIMO channels suitable for reconstructing full channel matrices from partial information about transmit-receive fading in spatial and polarimetric domains and analyze validity conditions for such models. One of the important channel conditions is Doppler frequency related to non-stationarity in the environment. We present simulations of cluster-type scattering model using 2×2 MIMO channel correlation matrices to predict performance of 2×4 MIMO system including recovery of angular power spectrum. An example of dual circular polarized 2×6 MIMO land mobile satellite measurements in 2.5 GHz frequency band illustrates applicability of the method to reconstruct spatial and polarimetric channel correlation matrices for estimating ergodic channel capacity from single-antenna or uni-polarized measurements. WG1
TD(16)01035 Joint Routing and Scheduling for Centralised Wireless Sensor Networks Chiara Buratti, Roberto Verdone We consider a centralised wireless sensor network, where nodes have to send data to a final sink, managing both routing and radio resources assignment. We propose two novel algorithms to jointly assign time slots to links and to define paths connecting nodes to the sink. In contrast with previous works, the proposed algorithms account for a realistic capture effect, where the signal-to-interference-ratio considering the sum of interfering powers is applied. The proposed algorithms, taking inspiration from Dijkstra and graph coloring techniques, are compared to a simple benchmark considering a simulated and a real network. It is shown that the proposed algorithms can assign a smaller amount of radio resources with respect to the benchmark, or ensure error-less transmissions in the network. EWG-IoT
TD(16)01036 Performance Evaluation of LoRa Technology: Experimentation and Simulation Luca Feltrin, Stefan Mijovic, Chiara Buratti, Andrea Stajkic, Enrico Vinciarelli, Roberto Verdone, Roberto De Bonis In the next years many new technologies for the Internet of Things and Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) will be defined, enabling the implementation of more efficient and pervasive systems but also making the development environment wider and more complicated. One emerging solution for LPWAN is LoRa, a wireless technology solution to address increasing demand on end-devices for long-range connectivity, low-power for battery operation, and low infrastructure cost for volume deployment. This paper presents, at first, an exhaustive list of use cases that may be implemented using LPWAN technologies, to highlight their main intrinsic differences and a categorization of them in macro groups. After this overview, the paper focuses on LoRa technology providing: i) characterisation of the link budget and of the packet capture threshold of LoRa Semtech and Microchip transceivers, via experimentation on the field; ii) performance evaluation (e.g., in terms of network throughput) of a LoRa network, via simulations. EWG-IoT
TD(16)01037 EuWin@UniBo: Experimental Facilities for the Internet of Things Chiara Buratti, Roberto Verdone This TD aims at presenting the experimental facilities for testing the IoT protocols available at the University of Bologna. These facilities are part of the European Laboratory of Wireless Communications for the Future Internet (EuWIn), established and funded under the umbrella of the EC FP7 Network of Excellence on Wireless Communications, Newcom#. The focus of the EuWIn site in Bologna (Italy) is the Internet of Things and the laboratory is composed of two platforms: 1) a network composed of 52 radio devices compliant with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, flexible enough to allow the development and testing of any routing algorithm compatible with such a standard, and deployed in fixed positions at the University of Bologna; 2) a platform composed of 100 devices battery charged and having different sensors on board. The presentation will illustrate such platform that will be make available to IRACON partners. EWG-IoT
TD(16)01038 Analysis of in-Room mm-Wave Propagation: Ray Tracing Simulations and Directional Channel Measurements. F. Fuschini, S. Häfner, M. Zoli, R. Müller, E. M. Vitucci, D. Dupleich, M. Barbiroli, J. Luo, E. Schulz, V. Degli-Esposti and R. S. Thomä. Frequency bands above 6 GHz are being considered particularly promising for future wireless systems as 5G, in order to solve the current issue of data traffic increase in wireless communications and to totally enable the MIMO technology. However, great challenges are around the corner at each level of implementations, also including the need for a thorough characterization of the mm-wave wireless channel. In this framework, the angular and temporal dispersive properties of the indoor radio channel at 70GHz are investigated in this study by means of directional measurements and ray tracing simulations. WG1/WG2
TD(16)01039 Three Dimensional (3D) Beamforming: An Application Example with Satellite-Terrestrial Spectral Coexistence Scenario Shree Krishna Sharma, Symeon Chatzinotas, Joel Grotz and Björn Ottersten In contrast to the traditional two dimensional (2D) beamforming, three dimensional (3D) beamforming controls the radiation beam pattern in both elevation and azimuth planes, thus providing additional degrees of freedom in the elevation plane while designing a wireless system. In this context, 3D beamforming has recently received important attention in the recent terrestrial wireless literature. In contrast to the existing works in the context of terrestrial wireless networks, this work presents an application of 3D beamforming in hybrid satellite-terrestrial coexistence system in order to enable the coexistence of satellite and terrestrial networks in non-exclusive Ka-band spectrum. In this coexistence example, terrestrial microwave links are highly directive in the Earth’s horizontal plane whereas Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) satellite terminals are directive towards the Geostationary satellite and an FSS terminal may employ 3D beamforming in order to minimize interference towards the plane in which terrestrial interference is concentrated and to maximize its transmission towards the desired direction. The proposed 3D beamforming solution is employed in a Multiple-Input Low Noise Block Downconverter (MLNB) based Feed Array Reflector (FAR) in contrast to the widely used Uniform Linear Array (ULA) structure. Within the employed antenna structure, the performance of the proposed beamforming solution is evaluated considering different feed arrangements. WG2
TD(16)01040 A Measurement Based Multilink Shadowing Model for V2V Network Simulations of Highway Scenarios Mikael Nilsson with mail mikael.nilsson@volvocars.com Shadowing from vehicles can significantly degrade the performance of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication in multilink systems, e.g., vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs). It is thus important to characterize and model the influence of common shadowing objects like cars properly when designing these VANETs. Despite the fact that for multilink systems it is essential to model the joint effects on the different links, the multilink shadowing effects of V2V channels on VANET simulations are not yet well understood. In this paper we present a measurement based analysis of multilink shadowing effects in a V2V communication system with cars as blocking objects. In particular we analyze, characterize and model the large scale fading, both regarding the coherence time and the joint multilink process, for communication at 5.9 GHz between four cars in a highway convoy scenario. The results show that it is essential to separate the measurement data of the V2V communication into line-of-sight (LOS) and obstructed LOS (OLOS) by other cars, and then apply an appropriate pathloss model for each of the two cases. The choice of the pathloss model not only influences the coherence time to vary from a few seconds up to minutes but also changes the cross-correlation of the large scale fading process between different links. A common pathloss model for the complete data set of all communication links, including one model for both LOS and OLOS, shows a larger crosscorrelation compared with pathloss model estimated separately for each link and different pathloss models between LOS and OLOS. By this, we conclude that it is important that VANET simulations use geometry based models, that can distinguish between LOS and OLOS communication as input, otherwise the VANET simulations need to consider the cross-correlation between different communication links to achieve results close to reality. WG1
TD(16)01041 A Semi-deterministic Method for Predicting Indoor Cellular Coverage in Dense Urban Areas V. Degli-Esposti, J. S. Lu, J. N. Wu, J. J. Zhu, J. A. Blaha, E. M. Vitucci, F.Fuschini, M. Barbiroli The prediction of cellular RF coverage at street level in urban environment has been addressed in many studies in the past two decades. Nevertheless, the prediction of indoor RF coverage on upper floors, much less popular within the scientific community, is of even greater interest, as most of the traffic of outdoor cellular base stations actually comes from indoor users. Due to difficulties in acquiring extensive indoor environment databases and using simultaneously outdoor and indoor propagation models, prediction of indoor RF coverage from outdoor base stations has been mainly limited to the use of generic outdoor-to-indoor attenuation factors or simple empirical formulas. In the present work we propose a hybrid method based on deterministic 3D outdoor RF prediction on the building surfaces and indoor extension using a radiosity-based method. Prediction results are checked against measurements and, surprisingly, results appear to be as accurate indoors on upper floors as outdoors at street level. WG1
TD(16)01042 Overview of the COST IC1004 white paper on ‘Channel measurement and modelling for 5G networks in the frequency bands above 6 GHz’ S. Salous The growth in demand for data has generated interest in identifying contiguous sections of the spectrum in the higher frequency bands as a possible solution. This has led to numerous efforts worldwide into channel measurements and channel modelling in the frequency bands above 6 GHz. In particular the millimetre wave band has been identified as a strong candidate with the World Radio Communications Conference held in November 2015 (WRC15) identifying several bands between 24-86 GHz as possible frequency allocations. To coordinate the international effort in this area, Study Groups (SG) SG3 and SG5, of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) are holding various meetings and setting up Correspondence Groups for measurement techniques and channel characterisations targeting future 5G systems and propagation models to update current ITU recommendations. Other standardisation bodies include 3GPP and ETSI. In this TD a summary of the white paper of the COST IC1004 Action on channel measurements and modelling for 5G systems operating in the higher frequency bands for both fixed links and mobile links in indoor and outdoor environments is presented. State of the art radio channel capability with channel measurements and channel models developed thus far are presented with future planned measurements in the identified WRC15 frequency bands. WG1
TD(16)01043 On Dimensions of OTA set-up for Base stations Radiated Testing Pekka Kyösti, Wei Fan, Anders Karstensen In this TD we sketch an over-the-air test set-up for base station (BS) size of devices. The multi probe anechoic chamber based system (MPAC) for small devices with two dimensional probe configuration for a circular or cylindrical test zone has been under research and development already for few years. Now BS device under test has certain differences to a hand held or mobile device. Typically BSs serve only a certain sector, so only a limited space angle is interesting in this case. The purpose of this study is to approximate physical dimensions of the MPAC set-up suitable for base station radiated testing. Firstly different metrics to evaluate far field conditions are utilized. Secondly rough link budget calculations are done to assess the feasibility with practical antennas and measurement devices. The frequencies of particular interest in this TD are 2.6, 3.5 and 28 GHz. EWG-OTA
TD(16)01044 Measurement Results and Simulation Based Channel Characterization For Outdoor Open Area Access Scenarios at 58.5 GHz Minseok Kim, Tatsuki Iwata, Kento Umeki, Karma Wangchuk, Takada Jun-ichi, Shigenobu Sasaki This paper presented dominant propagation mechanisms in an outdoor open area environment through the channel measurement and ray-tracing (RT) simulation at an mm-wave band of 58.5 GHz assuming an outdoor hotspot access scenario in 5G mobile systems and WLANs. The measurement result revealed that the multi-path clusters have relatively small power less than approximately 20 dB to the direct path other than first-order reflection from nearby buildings that can be predicted in a deterministic manner, and the channel can be well expressed by the quasi-deterministic (Q-D) channel model which supports natural description of environment-specific deterministic components separately from the other random components. Based on Q-D model, this paper presented extracted statistical channel model parameters of the random components by using RT simulation. WG1
TD(16)01045 Analysis of Outdoor Small-cell Path-loss and Propagation Channel from Ray-based Simulations in Sub-6GHz and mmWave Bands Yoann Corre, Thierry Tenoux, Julien Stéphan, Florian Letourneux, Romain Charbonnier, Yves Lostanlen This paper analyses the outdoor small-cell millimeter-wave (mmW) propagation using ray-based simulation tools. The main characteristics of the wireless channel, i.e. path-loss, delay and angular spreads, are characterized through various small-cell scenarios, and by comparison between several frequency bands. The 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands represent the traditional sub-6GHz frequencies in public radio-communication networks, while 28 GHz and 60 GHz stand for the mmW 5G candidate frequencies. A first analysis compares the downlink Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) in an urban small-cell network, showing how severely the coverage beyond building or vegetation blockage is degraded at mmW. Then, the shadowing and channel scattering created by a complex obstacle (an house) is studied; the delay and angle spreads behind the house are divided by respectively 5.8 and 2.8 when going from 5 GHz to 60 GHz. Finally, the paper investigates how the vegetation and its representation in the digital map data impact the simulated propagation. WG1
TD(16)01046 OTA testing challenges at mmWave frequeincies Moray Rumney Considerable progress has been made in the last few years with test techniques for SISO OTA and now MIMO OTA. However, the challenges presented by operating cellular communication system at new mmWave frequencies upwards of 30 GHz will require new approaches to be developed since existing OTA methods are unlikely to directly scale to mmWave frequencies. This presents a major research challenges to the industry and academia since the timescales for 5G development are so short and there are no cable fallback options due to the reliance of mmWave communication large beamsteered antenna arrays. EWG-OTA
TD(16)01047 Indoor Highly Resolved Channel Measurements at 60 GHz Jonas Medbo, Henrik Asplund, Niklas Jaldén There is a need to provide a solid basis for high resolution channel parameterization in space and delay. An angular resolution at the order of one degree and bandwidth of several GHz are needed. For this purpose an indoor channel measurement campaign has been conducted at 58.7 GHz. This TD presents and discusses around some of the findings obtained from these measurements. WG1
TD(16)01049 An Advanced Graph-based Ray Tracing Method for Radio Propagation Modelling and Localization Nicolas Amiot,Mohamed Laaraiedh, Bernard Uguen A fundamental step in designing wireless networks is the characterization of the propagation channels. In this TD a graph representation is exploited to propose a novel technique of ray-tracing for radio propagation modeling. The proposed technique, aiming to accelerate and simplify the ray tracing process and make it more efficient and robust, is based on graph representation of propagation environments and electromagnetic interactions. For that purpose the concept of ray signature is introduced and the Multi Dimensional Array (MDA) based description of data is presented. The proposed technique is evaluated using real measurements and shows good match between simulations outputs and measurements. WG1
TD(16)01050 Experimental validation of a wake-up radio architecture Florin HUTU, David KIBLOFF, Guillaume VILLEMAUD and Jean-Marie GORCE This paper presents an experimental validation of a wake-up radio receiver (WuRx), allowing to both address and wake-up a main radio front-end, which has best performance but more energy consumption. The main goal is to reduce the total energy consumption of communicating objects by switching off the data transceiver module of each equipment during the periods when it is not used. The wake-up receiver is designed to be able to detect a wakeup signal which has a particular frequency signature and so, avoiding activating all main radio front-ends but only the one of interest. Moreover, the identification is performed in RF domain via passive circuitry and no base-band processing is needed. EWG-IoT
TD(16)01051 A parallel unbalanced digitization architecture to reduce the dynamic range of multiple signals Mathieu Vallérian, Florin Hutu, Guillaume Villemaud, Benoıt Miscopein and Tanguy Risset Technologies employed in urban sensor networks are permanently evolving and thus the gateways employed to collect data in such kind of networks have to be very flexible in order to be compliant with the new communication standards. A convenient way to do that is to digitize all the received signals in one shot and then to digitally perform the signal processing, as it is done in Software-Defined Radio (SDR). The signals can be emitted with very different features (bandwidth, modulation type and power level) in order to respond to the various propagation conditions. Their difference in terms of power levels is a problem when digitizing them together, as no current commercial Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) can provide a fine enough resolution to digitize the weakest signal possible in presence of a stronger signal. This paper presents RF front-end receiver architecture capable of handling this problem by using two ADCs of lower resolutions. The architecture is validated through a set of simulations using Keysight’s ADS software. The main validation criteria is the BER comparison with a classical receiver. WG2
TD(16)01052 Experimental evaluation of interference impact on the energy consumption in wireless sensor networks Viktor Toldov, Laurent Clavier, Nicolas de Araujo Moreira In the era of Internet of Things (IoT), the development of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) presents different problems. Two of the main problems are electromagnetic interference and the lifetime of WSN nodes. In this paper, we show and evaluate experimentally the relation between interference and energy consumption, which impacts the lifetime. We present a platform based on commercially available low-cost hardware in order to evaluate the impact of electromagnetic interference in 2.4 GHz ISM band on energy consumption of WSN. The energy measurements are obtained separately from each electronic component in the node. Interference and energy measurements are conducted in an anechoic chamber and in an office-type lab environment. X-MAC protocol is chosen to manage the Radio Duty Cycle of the nodes and its energy performance is evaluated. The energy consumption of both, receiver and transmitter nodes, is analyzed. Moreover, this energy consumption was quantified and differentiated according to the number of (re-)transmissions carried out by the transmitter as well as the number of ACK packets sent by the receiver for a single packet. Finally, we use a model of real battery to calculate the lifetime of the node for operation within different interference level zones. EWG-IoT
TD(16)01053 Attainable Capacity of Spatial Radio Channels: A Multiple-Frequency Analysis Katsuyuki Haneda, Sinh Le Hong Nguyen and Afroza Khatun This TD reports an attainable channel capacity of multiple-antenna radio channels at 15, 28 and 63 GHz. The analysis is based on channel sounding in a same street canyon. The attainable capacity is evaluated so that it depends only on the antenna aperture size but is independent of implementation of antenna elements on the aperture. Results show that channels at the investigated three radio frequencies attain almost the same level of capacity for the same transmit power and physical antenna aperture size. WG2
TD(16)01054 Passive Millimeter-Wave RFID using Backscattered Signals Francesco Guidi and Raffaele D’Errico Within the IoT context, passive radiofrequency Identification (RFID) is expected to play a key role thanks to the possibility to connect people with tagged objects in real time. In addition, next fifth mobile communication (5G) could foresee the use of millimeter-wave technology in order to meet the increasing device-to-device traffic demand due to the large available bandwidth at millimiter wave. The possibility to jointly adopt millimeter-wave technology with passive RFID based on the backscattered signal paves the way to new low-cost identification and detection based applications. In this TD we investigate the joint adoption of these technologies, trying to assess the feasibility of this choice by comparing such solution with the passive UWB-based one. WG2
TD(16)01055 A Unified Generic Multicarrier Modulation Framework Konstantinos Maliatsos, Eleftherios Kofidis, Athanasios Kanatas OFDM modulation and OFDM-based transmission schemes have dominated the current modern wireless standards. Nevertheless, OFDM modulation also presents significant weaknesses, i.e. reduced spectral efficiency due to cyclic prefix, high Peak to Average Power ration, low tolerance in frequency offset errors and narrowband interference. Therefore, Filter-bank based multicarrier modulation schemes have become strong candidates for future radio standard waveforms. In this work, a full mathematical model is developed that can support any multicarrier modulation (including, FBMC/OQAM, FMT, SC-FDMA and any other possible variation). The generic modulator is parametrized to develop any modulation scheme. It can be used a) to design and evaluate new multicarrier modulation versions, b) extract unified results for performance and evaluation of transmission techniques. WG2
TD(16)01057 Accurate and Robust Positioning for 5G Systems: Bandwidth Scaling and Diversity Gain in Dense Multipath Klaus Witrisal, Erik Leitinger, Stefan Hinteregger, Josef Kulmer, Paul Meissner, Katsuyuki Haneda, Carl Gustafson, and Fredrik Tufvesson In the first part of this paper, the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) on the ranging error variance is revisited to quantify the influence of dense multipath in indoor environments. Our analytical results yield novel insight on the scaling of the ranging and positioning accuracy as a function of bandwidth and number of diversity branches. It also yields insight in the detectability of the useful line-of-sight signal component. It is found that the Fisher information scales faster than quadratically in bandwidth but only linearly in the number of independent diversity branches. We investigate the entire bandwidth-range from the flat-fading narrowband case up to ultra-wideband. The second part of the paper argues that multipath signal propagation can be exploited to enhance the robustness and reduce the required infrastructure for accurate positioning. The geometric information in deterministic, reflected components yields the required redundancy to obtain these advantages. Ultra-wideband signals and/or multi-antenna transceivers are needed to leverage these gains. It is thus foreseen that mm-wave 5G systems, employing both, large bandwidths and antenna-array beamforming, will provide the radio frontends needed for highly accurate and robust indoor radiopositioning. EWG-LOC
TD(16)01058 Research activities at WiComTec-UPC research group Sílvia Ruiz, Mario Garcia_Lozano, David Perez, José Luis Valenzuela, Joan Olmos and Lluis Alonso This paper is an introduction of the main research activities in which the Wireless Communications and Technologies research group (WiComTec-UPC) is involved now or has planned for the next years, oriented to disseminate and facilitate a better knowledge of the capabilities of the group that could promote joint research activity with other IRACON members. Specifically it will be oriented to 5G networks and optimization through SON, WSN and IoT. EWG-RA
TD(16)01059 On frequency dependence of large scale channel parameters Henrik Asplund, Jonas Medbo, Niklas Jaldén To design and evaluate concepts for technologies aimed to support wireless connectivity at any rates, for any communicating units, and in any type of scenarios, there is a need for accurate modelling of channel characteristics. In recent work, for example in the channel modeling effort in 3GPP, one topic of discussion has been regarding frequency-dependence of channel properties, such as angle spread, delay spread and other parameters. To support such work scientific evidence based on comparable measurements are needed. As one contribution, this TD analyzes comparable multi-frequency measurements in one indoor scenario. WG1
TD(16)01060 Specular Reflection Formulation for Point Cloud Modelling Jean-Frederic Wagen, Usman Tahir Virk, Katsuyuki Haneda Describing the environment using a point cloud is a promising method for both propagation predictions and channel simulations. Recently, a specular reflection model has been proposed and verified through measurements to account for reflections from large reflecting surfaces. Here, the formulation for the specular reflections for point cloud (SRPC) is improved based on a few canonical measurements in an anechoic chamber. The specular reflection image theory for large surfaces, the Radar Cross Section equation for small surfaces, the Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral formula, and measurements are investigated. Unexpect- edly to the authors, the results show that, when neglecting the diffraction effects, the contributions to the specular reflected field occur mainly from the illumination of about a third of the first Fresnel zone. A prediction of the SRPC formula is the possible appearance of short lived peaks in PDPs (“radio flares”) due to electrically small reflecting surfaces. Adding and removing artificial PEC scatterers in measured environments is proposed to guide further investigations. (This TD is mostly based on a contribution to EUCAP2016) WG1
TD(16)01062 Indoor Channel Characterization in the E-band Aliou Bamba, Francesco Mani, Raffaele D’Errico This TD presents the channel characterization of an indoor office environment in the E-Band (80.5-86.5 GHz). Measurements were performed by means of mechanical steering of directive antennas at both the transmitter and receiver side, allowing a double-directional angular characterization. Specular components have been estimated by means of a detectio algorithm. Characterization of path loss, delay spread, Angle-of- Departure and Angle-of-Arrival spreads are presented. WG1/WG2
TD(16)01063 MU-MIMO Performances Analysis from Aggregated Measurement Channel in Indoor Environment. Mamadou Dialounke Baldé, Bernard Uguen This TD explores the performances of a synthetic Indoor MU MIMO radio channel. The measurements were performed in an Office environment from 1.8GHz to 2.2GHz in vertical polarization. Data were acquired by a VNA based spatial channel sounder associated to a four axes spatial scanner. An uniform (1×8) linear array (ULA) was placed at 4 different heights to emulate several larger virtual planar antenna arrays. Besides, various measurement sites were uniformly scanned in 3 different NLOS configurations. The measured dataset is then used to construct different configurations of aggregated MU-MIMO matrices. From the presented measurement campaign, capacity and eigenvalue distributions of the MIMO channel are presented for respectively 8, 16, 24 and 32 antennas at the transmitter side. EWG-RA
TD(16)01064 Study of Dominant Path Probability Models for 5G 3GPP Channel Model Gerhard Steinböck, Tommi Jämsä, Mattias Gustafsson 3GPP has begun a study item to define the 5G channel models. It has been proposed that the 3GPP 3D channel model – which is based on SCM and WINNER+ principles – will be extended for 5G by defining a number of new features and channel model parameters for higher frequencies. We conduct a simulation study using the Madrid grid of the map based METIS model and propose some modifications for the probability of dominating propagation paths such as line of sight, ground reflection and specular reflection. WG1
TD(16)01065 Performance evaluation of massive-MIMO systems in fading-emulator based setup W. Fan, I. Carton, P. Kyösti, T. Jämsä, M. Gustafsson, G. F. Pedersen A novel fading-emulator based setup suitable for massive MIMO performance evaluation is presented, where each fading emulator output port is connected to a splitter, phase-shifters, attenuators and an antenna array to reproduce spatial channel models. Spatial channels composed of specular paths with arbitrary fading and delay profiles can be accurately reproduced over a large test area in the proposed setup. EWG-OTA
TD(16)01066 3GPP 3D Channel Model for 5G Tommi Jämsä, Gerhard Steinböck 3GPP has begun a study item to define the 5G channel models. It has been proposed that the 3GPP 3D channel model – which is based on SCM and WINNER+ principles – will be extended for 5G by defining channel model parameters for higher frequencies. The proposed channel model is originally designed for cellular system with relatively narrow bandwidth (100 MHz) and low carrier frequencies (around 3 GHz). However, in 5G both transmitter and receiver may be in arbitrary locations, the bandwidth may be much wider, and the carrier frequency band may be much higher. Also, the number of users may be very high, and antenna constructions could include hundreds of antenna elements. To support these kinds of scenarios, the channel model should be consistent in the spatial domain and across different frequency bands. This paper analyzes the suitability of 3GPP channel model for the 5G requirements, and proposes a number of extensions. WG1
TD(16)01067 Wireless Network Design with Dynamic Interference Malcolm Egan, Mauro de Freitas, Laurent Clavier, Alban Goupil, Gareth W. Peters and Nourddine Azzaoui Impulsive noise arises in many communication systems—ranging from wireless to molecular—and is often modeled via the α-stable distribution. We are interested in networks with dynamic interference. In this case, the locations of the interfering base stations, the fading and the baseband emissions all vary rapidly compared to the distance of the link between the typical user and its serving base station, as well as the fading coefficient. We therefore view the interference as noise that affects every symbol. We investigate properties of the capacity of complex isotropic α-stable noise channels, which can arise in the context of wireless cellular communications and are not well understood at present. In particular, we derive a tractable lower bound to characterize the performance of the network, which was compared via the Blahut algorithm. We then apply our lower bound to study the case of base stations density optimization. WG2
TD(16)01068 Millimeter-wave Channel Modeling Using Graph theory Based on Digital Maps Li Tian, Vittorio Degli-Esposti, Enrico M. Vitucci, Xuefeng Yin Graph theory channel modelling is an efficient approach to simulate multipath radio propagation including the reverberation effect of electromagnetic waves. In this contribution, without modifying the modelling framework, we proposed a semi-deterministic channel modeling approach by associating the scatterers with realistic environment objects, and by calculating the coefficients of the propagation paths on the base of a physically sound and proven diffuse scattering theory. The diffuse multipath components are then combined with the specular components simulated by ray-tracing to obtain a complete channel representation. The proposed method is evaluated in two reference scenarios at 3.8 and 60 GHz respectively by comparing the simulated channel characteristics with channel measurement data. Results show that the proposed method can accurately predict the channel characteristics in both the delay domain and the angular domain. The proposed approach is appropriate to model multipath propagation in confined indoor or dense-urban environment at millimeter-wave frequencies and above, where reverberation and rough surface scattering can be important phenomena. WG1
TD(16)01070 An Efficient Ray-Tracing Method Based on Image Visibility Mapping for Propagation Prediction in Urban Environments Sajjad Hussain and Conor Brennan This paper presents an efficient ray-tracing algorithm based on a reduction of the size of the image tree required to trace a ray to a given point, in addition to a fast ray-object intersection test method. The image tree is calculated using an efficient visibility algorithm. The visibility region of the images are described by lit and dark polygons, and are mapped to the coverage area. This mapping reduces the image tree significantly for any receiver point in the environment, while the lit and dark polygons representation accelerates the ray-object intersection test. For the specific case of predictions along a linear (or piecewise linear) test route it is possible to further reduce the computational burden by identifying the points at which the test route will enter and leave given lit polygons. Validation results show a good agreement between the simulated and measured results. WG1
TD(16)01072 Time Correlation in Mobile to Mobile Indoor Channels Gloria Makhoul, Francesco Mani, Raffaele D’Errico, Claude Oestges This TD analyzes the temporal correlation properties of mobile-to-mobile (M2M) channels, based on an extensive measurement campaign carried out in an indoor environment at 2.48 GHz. In order to model the dynamic channel characteristics, short- and long-term fading behaviors are extracted. The autocorrelation function (ACF) is characterized for different types of pedestrian movements and different on-body antenna positions are presented WG1
TD(16)01073 On the Duality Between State-Dependent Channels and Wiretap Channels David Kibloff, Samir M. Perlaza, Guillaume Villemaud, Leonardo S. Cardoso In this paper, the duality between state-dependent channels with causal state-information at the transmitter and wiretap channels is established. The existence of pairs of wiretap channels and state-dependent channels with state information at the transmitter sharing the same achievable scheme and achievable region is proved. Thus, under certain conditions, results obtained for one model are shown to hold for the other. Moreover, it is found that in the case of wiretap state-dependent channel with causal state information at the transmitter, secrecy is naturally guaranteed by the code construction for the state-dependent channel without requiring any additional effort to combat the eavesdropper. WG2
TD(16)01074 Substitutability of Spectrum and Cloud-based Antennas in Virtualised Wireless Networks Hamed Ahmadi, Irene Macaluso, Ismael Gomez, Linda Doyle, Luiz DaSilva Some of the new trends emerging in future wireless networks enable a vastly increased fluidity in accessing a wide range of resources, thus supporting flexible network composition and dynamic allocation of resources to virtual network operators (VNOs). In this work we study a new resource allocation opportunity that is enabled by the cloud radio access network architecture. In particular, we investigate the relationship between the cloud-based antennas and spectrum as two important resources in virtualized wireless networks. We analyze the interplay between spectrum and antennas in the context of an auction-based allocation mechanism through which VNOs can bid for a combination of the two types of resources. Our analysis shows that the complementarity and partial substitutability of the two resources significantly impact the results of the allocation of those resources and uncovers the possibility of divergent interests between the spectrum and the infrastructure providers WG3
TD(16)01075 S. Fortes, A. Aguilar-García, J.A. Fernández-Luque, A. Garrido-Martín, R. Barco Location-Based User Equipment Identification of Failures in Femtocell Networks Recent times have seen a continuous increase in the complexity and ubiquity of cellular networks. This complexity led to the adoption of automatic mechanisms for self-organizing networks, especially important for the detection of coverage problems at indoor scenarios. Also, users’ information such as their position is becoming increasingly available to support end-user services, such as navigation. In this environment, the present paper proposes a location-based method for the identification of coverage issues in femtocell scenarios. Hence, the detection of the coverage issues is performed in a localized environment based on the analysis of the signal received by the terminals. In this way, the present paper describes the proposed methodology, logical framework and tests of the approach. EWG-LOC
TD(16)01076 Experimental Characterization and multipath clustering modelling for 13-17 GHz Indoor Propagation Channels Cen Ling, Xuefeng Yin, Haowen Wang, Xiaomei Zhang, and Reiner S. Thomä In this contribution, a channel measurement campaign is introduced that utilizes direction-scan-sounding (DSS) to capture the spatial characteristics of higher-frequency-band(HFB) propagation channels from 13 to 17 GHz in a lecture hall scenario. Measurements were performed by fixing the omnidirectional transmitter (Tx) antenna, and rotating the receiver (Rx) equipped with either 10◦- or 30◦-half-power-beamwidth (HPBW) horn antenna in azimuth of arrival (AoA) and elevation of arrival (EoA) domains. The Space-Alternating Generalized Expectation-maximization (SAGE) algorithm derived based on a generic specular-path model was applied to estimating multipath components (MPCs) in delay, AoA and EoA domains, based on which the statistics of channel dispersion and cluster-level parameters were calculated. Results show that using the 10◦- HPBW antenna, more objects located further away from the transceivers are involved in the propagation, and the 30◦-HPBW antenna allows observing more local scatterers in the vicinity of the Tx and Rx. Nevertheless, propagation constellations obtained under different antenna’s HPBWs are similar. Furthermore, the statistical models established are less antenna-specific than those extracted directly from measured channel impulse responses (CIRs). Additionally, it was found out that the ratio of the antenna-HPBW to the rotation step is an essential parameter for the channel characteristics and statistics. With the growth of , delay spread, AoA spread, cluster delay spread, cluster AoA spread and cluster path-loss exponent versus transmission distance have a tendency to decline. WG1/WG2
TD(16)01077 Sensor Selection and Power Allocation Strategies in Energy Harvesting Frameworks Miguel Calvo-Fullana, Javier Matamoros and Carles Antón-Haro In this article, we investigate the problem of jointly selecting a predefined number of energy harvesting (EH) sensors and computing the optimal power allocation. The ultimate goal is to minimize the reconstruction distortion at the fusion center. We propose two suboptimal strategies: (i) a joint sensor selection and power allocation (JSS-EH) scheme that, we prove, is capable of iteratively finding a stationary solution of the original problem from a sequence of surrogate convex problems; and (ii) a separate sensor selection and power allocation (SS-EH) scheme, on which basis we can identify a sensible sensor selection and analytically find a power allocation policy by solving a convex problem. Performance in terms of reconstruction distortion, impact of initialization, actual subsets of selected sensors and computed power allocation policies, etc., is assessed by means of computer simulations. EWG-IoT
TD(16)01078 Millimeter-wave Channel Prediction Using Point Cloud Data Jan Järveläinen, Katsuyuki Haneda, Aki Karttunen Deterministic field prediction has been widely used to provide large amount of channel data for modeling the radio channel. Among these, point cloud-based methods have beed developed for millimeter-wave frequencies in order to characterize the environment with higher precision, but they have not taken into account all the necessary propagation mechanisms. In this paper, we present the implementation for predicting both specular reflections and diffraction as well as the total channel including the aforementioned mechanisms along with scattering and shadowing. Both line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight channels are predicted and validated against measurements in a cafeteria. The result shows excellent agreement between prediction and measurement in terms of path loss, mean delay, delay spread and azimuth spread. WG1
TD(16)01079 A study on the performance of Over-Roof-Top propagation models in dense urban environment E. M. Vitucci, F. Fuschini, M. Barbiroli, M. Zoli, V. Degli-Esposti In the present study, the performance of Over-Roof-Top (ORT) propagation models in dense urban environment is investigated. Standard models based on multiple knife-edge diffraction and multiple UTD are considered, in addition to other methods like reducing/merging the diffracting edges and heuristic correction factors. Several cellular sites with different characteristics located in the city of San Francisco are considered, and predictions are compared with measurements after selecting strongly-NLOS locations where ORT is expected to be the dominant propagation mechanism. Results show that standart ORT models generally overestimate the attenuation, while their combination with edge reduction and correction factors allows to achieve a mean prediction error close to 0, and error standard deviation of about 10 dB. WG1
TD(16)01080 An Empirical Random-Cluster Model for Subway Channels Based on Passive Measurements in UMTS Xuesong Cai, Xuefeng Yin, Xiang Cheng, and Antonio Perez Yuste Recently, a measurement campaign for characterizing the channels in underground subway environments was conducted in Shanghai, China. Downlink signals transmitted by 46 Universal Mobile Telecommunications System cells deployed along a 34-kilometer-long subway were collected. Channel impulse responses (CIRs) are extracted from the data received in the Common Pilot Channels (CPICHs), based on which parameters of multipath components (MPCs) are estimated by using a high-resolution parameter algorithm derived using the space-alternating generalized expectation-maximization (SAGE) principle. Multiple time-evolving clusters are obtained, each representing the channel from a remote-radio-unit (RRU) of a base station to the receiver. Based on a total of 98 time-evolving clusters, channels observed in the station scenario and tunnel scenario are modelled separately for their distinctive behaviors in many aspects, particularly in the variations of clusters’ trajectories. Intra-cluster characteristics parameterized by cluster delay and Doppler frequency spreads, K-factor and dependencies among these parameters are investigated. Inter-cluster parameters, including co-existing cluster number, delay offset, power offset and cross correlations are investigated for the station scenario. A path loss model is established for the tunnel scenario. WG1
TD(16)01081 Measurement-based estimation of material permittivity at millimetre wave frequencies Thomas H. Barratt, Angelos A. Goulianos, Alberto Loaiza Freire, Thomas M. Stone, Evangelos Mellios, Peter Cain, Andrew R. Nix & Mark A. Beach With the limited gains available in the sub-6GHz spectrum new advancements are needed for the new 5G standards. One key enabling technologies is seen to be the use of the millimetre wave spectrum. This enables large bandwidths in the currently underutilised bands. The millimetre wave channel introduces new challenges to as material characteristics act differently at the higher frequencies. This paper has measured the performance of different indoor and outdoor walls. The receiver was moved in an 80° arc around a single point on a wall while the transmitter statically pointed at the same location. These arcs were repeated for various angles of the transmitter. This has allowed the reflection power for every angle can be seen for a single transmitter angles. Results have been presented from the arc measurements in addition to calculated reflection coefficient which have been extracted using a least root mean squared error comparison between the calculated and measured powers for each location. WG1
TD(16)01082 Dynamic Performance of Electrical Balance Duplexing in a Vehicular Scenario Leo Laughlin, Chunqing Zhang, Mark A. Beach, Kevin A. Morris, John L. Haine Electrical Balance Duplexers (EBDs) can achieve high transmit-to-receive (Tx-Rx) isolation, but can be affected by interaction between the antenna and environment. Circuit simulations incorporating measured time-variant antenna impedance data have been used to quantify performance variation and determine circuit adaptation requirements for EBDs operating in vehicular scenarios at 875 MHz and 1900 MHz. Results show that the interaction between the antennas and the external environment is limited and vehicle motion does not necessitate high speed EBD adaptation, however the impedance of dashboard mounted antennas can vary due to interaction with the windscreen wipers, causing substantial variation in the Tx-Rx isolation and requiring EBD re-balancing intervals of 5 ms or less to maintain performance. WG2
TD(16)01083 Distributed defective node detection in Delay Tolerant Networks W. Li, F. Bassi, A. Callisti, D. Dardari, L. Galluccio, M. Kieffer, and G. Pasolini Propagation of faulty data in Delay Tolerant Networks can be a critical aspect to counteract due to the inherent feature of exhibiting frequent disconnections. Indeed the rare meeting events require that nodes are effective and efficient in propagating correct information. Accordingly, mechanisms to rapidly identify possible faulty or misbehaving nodes should be searched. Distributed fault detection has been addressed in the literature in the context of sensor and vehicular networks, but already proposed solutions suffer from long delays in identifying and isolating misbehaving nodes. This paper proposes a fully distributed, easily implementable, and fast convergent approach to allow each DTN node to rapidly identify whether its sensors are producing outliers, i.e., fauty data. The behavior of the proposed algorithm is described by some continuous-time state equations, whose equilibrium is characterized. Detection and false alarm rates are estimated by comparing both theoretical and simulation results. Numerical results assess the effectiveness of the proposed solution and give guidelines in the design of the algorithm. WG2/WG3
TD(16)01084 Preliminary Investigation of Uplink Power Control for Massive MIMO Wael Boukley Hasan, Paul Harris, Angela Doufexi and Mark Beach This paper proposes a novel uplink power control for massive MIMO (Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output). The proposed algorithm scheme achieves the highest affordable signal to interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) for each user by considering the mutual interference arising from other users’. It also minimizes the required Uplink transmit power to achieve the highest possible Uplink SINR per user without increasing the complexity at the user equipment. The base station (BS) controls the user transmit power using only two bits in a Transmission Power Control (TPC) command. The introduced algorithm is expected to increase the energy efficiency (EE) and the spectral efficiency (SE) as well as decrease the transmission overheads, the latency and the complexity of the receiver. EWG-RA
TD(16)01085 Real-Time Measurements with a 128-Antenna Massive MIMO Testbed Paul Harris, Siming Zhang, Mark Beach, Evangelos Mellios, Andrew Nix, Simon Armour, Angela Doufexi This paper presents initial results for a novel 128-antenna massive Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output (MIMO) testbed developed through Bristol Is Open in collaboration with National Instruments and Lund University. We believe that the results presented here validate the adoption of massive MIMO as a key enabling technology for 5G and pave the way for further pragmatic research by the massive MIMO community. The testbed operates in real-time with a Long-Term Evolution (LTE)-like PHY in Time Division Duplex (TDD) mode and supports up to 24 spatial streams, providing an excellent basis for comparison with existing standards and complimentary testbeds. Through line-of-sight (LOS) measurements at 3.51 GHz in an indoor atrium environment with 12 user clients, an uncoded system sum-rate of 1.59 Gbps was achieved in real-time using a single 20 MHz LTE band, equating to 79.4 bits/s/Hz. Further experiments also showed an ability to separate 22 spatial streams all set to 256-QAM, which using the same frame schedule equates to a spectral efficiency of 145.6 bits/s/Hz. EWG-RA