2nd TM – Durham, UK, Oct. 4 – 6, 2016

TD # Title Authors Abstract WG
TD(16)02001 Emergency Ad-Hoc Networks by Using Drone Mounted Base Stations for a Disaster Scenario Margot Deruyck, Jorg Wyckmans, Luc Martens, Wout Joseph In case of a large scale disaster, the wireless access network can become quickly saturated. This is of course undesirable because for this kind of situations we actually need a reliable wireless connectivity. In this study, the potential of mounting LTE femtocell base stations on drones to offer an alternative for the saturated existing wireless infrastructure is investigated. Our preliminary results show that this is a very promising approach although a high amount of drones are needed to cover all users in the city center of Ghent, Belgium during a 1h intervention. The number of drones can be significantly reduced (up to 64%) by using a more advanced type of drone, by decreasing the user coverage requirement (11% less drones when requiring 80% instead of 90%) or by increasing the fly height of the drones (about 10% less drones needed when increasing the fly height by 10m). This study shows that it is interesting to further investigate the use of drones to provide an emergency wireless access network. DWG3
TD(16)02002 Characteristics of the Polarised Off-Body Channel in Indoor Environments Kenan Turbic, Slawomir J. Ambroziak, Luis M. Correia This paper addresses the depolarisation effect in off-body Body Area Networks channels, based on measurements performed at 2.45 GHz in an indoor environment. Seven different scenarios, involving both static and dynamic users, were considered, taking a statistical perspective. The analysis of the cross-polarisation discrimination is performed, as well as the analysis of path loss in co- and cross-polarised channels. Results show a strong dependence of the cross-polarisation discrimination and of channel characteristics on the polarisation and propagation condition, i.e., line-of-sight (LoS), non-LoS or quasi-LoS. The variation in distance, from 1 m to 6 m, shows very little impact. In dynamic scenarios, the shadow fading is observed to exhibit a Lognormal distribution, whereas multipath fading is seen to follow the Nakagami one, with essentially different parameter values in the co- and cross-polarised channels, showing a trend towards Rice in the former and Rayleigh in the latter cases. Based on results, a model is proposed for a dynamic off-body channel. DWG1
TD(16)02003 LTE Delay Assessment for Real-Time Management of Future Smart Grids Ljupco Jorguseski, Haibin Zhang, Sylvie Dijkstra-Soudarissanane, Michal Golinski This study investigates the feasibility of using Long Term Evolution (LTE), for the real-time state estimation of the smart grids. This enables monitoring and control of future smart grids. The smart grid state estimation requires measurement reports from different nodes in the smart grid and therefore the uplink LTE radio delay performance is selected as key performance indicator. The LTE delay evaluation approach is via ‘snap-shot’ system level simulations of an LTE system where the physical resource allocation, modulation and coding scheme selection and retransmissions are modelled. The impact of the schedulers on the LTE delay performance is analyzed at different granularities of LTE resource allocation, for both urban and suburban environments. DWG3
TD(16)02004 Long term measurements over fixed links in the mm wave band A. Cheema, S. Salous, X. Raimundo, Y. Cao The millimeter wave band has been identified for future wireless links with various applications ranging from device to device for ranges over a few cm to backhaul applications with links varying in range from a few meters to km’s. To study the impact of precipitation on mm wave fixed links, three links are being set up in Durham at two frequencies with single and dual polarisation configurations. The TD will give an overview of the experimentals set up and the performance of the system. DWG1
TD(16)02005 Wide Band Propagation in Train-to-Train Scenarios – Measurement Campaign and First Results Paul Unterhuber, Stephan Sand, Mohammad Soliman, Benjamin Siebler, Andreas Lehner, Thomas Strang Within the next decades the railway system will change to fully automotive High Speed Trains (HSTs). Along this way new applications and a change in the train control and management is necessary to increase the efficiency and the safety but reduce the costs at the same time. Two of these future applications are dynamic coupling or virtual coupling. For such maneuvers, the train control need to be changed from today’s centralized railway management systems. Such changes demand new reliable control communication links between Train-to-Ground (T2G) as well as Train-to-Train (T2T). The T2G will be covered by Long Term Evolution-Railway (LTE-R) which replaces today’s Global System for Mobile Communications-Railway (GSM-R). This publication focuses on the wide band propagation in T2T scenarios and describes a measurement campaign with two HSTs. Next to the measurement campaign first results are presented. DWG1
TD(16)02006 Base Station Over-the-Air Testing in Reverberation Chamber Christian Patané Lötbäck, Klas Arvidsson, Mats Högberg, Mattias Gustafsson Base station conformance and performance testing is traditionally carried out in a conducted manner, i.e. test instruments are connected via cables to physical ports on the base station. In this way, the quality of the output signal is assessed. Various metrics need to be measured and the levels comply with requirements in standard specifications. As the complexity of the base station transceiving circuitry increases and more and more antennas are added to the transceiving links, new measurement techniques are needed to capture the true performance. This is especially important for base stations for the new emerging 5G standard, where a very large number of antennas and new technologies such as massive MIMO and active antenna systems will be used for the signal transmission and reception. The conducted testing will not show the true radio frequency performance when several transceivers are used to combine the signal in the air interface. For these systems, it might not either be possible to incorporate physical ports on the base station to which test equipment can be connected. Thus, Over-the-Air testing will be needed, where the signals are transmitted and received over the antenna interface. It is important that such test methods are time and cost effective, in order not to significantly increase the test efforts compared to today. The reverberation chamber is a good candidate for these tests, given its low test time and test setup complexity. The reverberation chamber is already a frequently and well-proven tool in the wireless industry to assess performance of user equipment and the extension to base station testing is straightforward. This paper elaborates on the feasibility of the reverberation chamber for base station Over-the-Air testing. Several key parameters are measured and compared to results from conducted testing, showing that the metrics currently measured in conducted mode can be translated to Over-the-Air metrics with high accuracy. In addition, an analysis of major uncertainty contributions is provided. This analysis shows that there is insignificant impact on the measurement accuracy when measuring antennas with high gain. EWG-OTA
TD(16)02007 Practical Interference-Aware R-ML SIC Receiver for LTE SU-MIMO Spatial Multiplexing Elena LUKASHOVA, Florian KALTENBERGER, Raymond KNOPP In the last years, the receiver design has become crucial for the performance of MIMO systems. However, the high complexity of the optimum Maximum-Likelihood (ML) receivers raises the problem of complexity-performance trade-off. This paper presents a practical Reduced Complexity ML Interference-Aware Receiver with Successive Interference Canceling principle (R-ML IA SIC) for single user MIMO system. The low computational complexity is achieved by decoupling real and imaginary parts of the interference-aware soft log-likelihood metrics. The proposed receiver does not introduce loss of information compared to ML receivers thanks to employed SIC principle, meaning the complexity reduction comes without the performance penalty. Our receiver achieves up to 1 bit/dim throughput gain in moderate and high SNR regimes in flat-fading environments compared to R-ML IA receiver based on Parallel detection (R-ML IA PAI). The throughput achieved from link-level simulations of implemented receiver is close to theoretically predicted one by the means of probability of outage analysis. DWG2
TD(16)02008 Virtualization of Spatial Streams for Enhanced Spectrum Sharing Hamed Ahmadi, Irene Macalusoy, Ismael Gomezy, Luiz DaSilvay, Linda Doyle In this work we propose a virtualized network architecture for an infrastructure provider that shares the physical resources of a Massive MIMO cell among several virtual network operators (VNOs) using spatial multiplexing. In this architecture the infrastructure provider allocates spatial streams to the VNOs, which enables each VNO to select its own scheduling policy and user priority to differentiate its service from the other VNOs. To assign the spatial streams to the VNOs that value them the most, we propose an auction-based spatial stream allocation approach. We show that the proposed auction-based approach performs very close to the optimal (fixed) approach in the case of homogeneous static VNOs demand. In case of heterogeneous demands, the auction mechanism is able to dynamically allocate the resources according to the needs of different VNOs. DWG3
TD(16)02009 Tailor-Made Tissue Phantoms Based on Acetonitrile Solutions for Microwave Applications up to 18 GHz Sergio Castelló-Palacios, Concepcion Garcia-Pardo, Alejandro Fornes-Leal, Narcís Cardona, and Ana Vallés-Lluch Tissue-equivalent phantoms play a key role in the development of new wireless communications devices, which are tested on such phantoms prior to their commercialization. However, existing phantoms cover a small number of tissues and do not reproduce them accurately within wide frequency bands. This paper aims at enlarging the number of mimicked tissues as well as their working frequency band. Thus, a variety of potential compounds are scanned according to their relative permittivity from 0.5 to 18 GHz. Next, a combination of these compounds is characterized so the relation between their dielectric properties and composition is provided. Finally, taking advantage of the previous analysis, tailor-made phantoms are developed for different human tissues up to 18 GHz and particularized for the main current Body Area Network (BAN) operating bands. The tailor-made phantoms presented here exhibit such a high accuracy that would allow researchers and manufacturers to test microwave devices at high frequencies for large bandwidths as well as the use of heterogeneous phantoms in the near future. The key of these phantoms lies in the incorporation of acetonitrile to aqueous solutions. Such compound has a suitable behavior to achieve the relative permittivity values of body tissues within the studied frequency band. EWG-IoT
TD(16)02010 Geometry-Based Polarised Static Off-Body Channel Model Kenan Turbic, Luis M. Correia, Marko Beko The paper presents a theoretical polarised off-body channel model, based on geometrical optics and modified Uniform Theory of Diffraction (UTD). It takes into account Line-of-Sight (LoS) propagation, reflections and diffractions, and allows arbitrary antenna orientations, polarisations and radiation patterns. The model is used to simulate an indoor environment scenario, where the transmission between co- and cross-polarised transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) is analysed. The obtained results show that significantly stronger signal is received by the co-polarised antenna, as compared to the case when the antennas are orthogonal, where different propagation mechanisms dominate the two channels. DWG1
TD(16)02011 Using the iMinds w-iLab.t testbed for IoT experiments Margot Deruyck, Wout Joseph Presentation of iMinds w-iLab.t that can be used for IoT experiments EWG-IoT
TD(16)02012 A Model for Virtual Radio Resource Management in C-RAN Behnam Rouzbehani, Luís M. Correia, Luísa Caeiro This paper proposes a model of Virtual Radio Resource Management (VRRM) to provide Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees for different classes of services in a heterogeneous Cloud-based Radio Access Network (C-RAN). In this model, a single Virtual Network Operator (VNO) asks for wireless capacity from a set of physical network providers to serve its subscribers, and not having to deal with the physical infrastructure. The algorithm estimates the available capacity of the network based on the accessible radio resources from different Radio Access Technologies (RATs), and then allocates to each service of VNO, a portion of the available data rate based on the VNO’s Service Level Agreements (SLAs). This process is done by solving a constrained nonlinear optimisation problem, which tries to balance and prioritise the allocated data rate of different services according to their specific QoS needs. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated through implementing practical heterogeneous network scenarios. Results show that the algorithm is capable of satisfying the predefined SLAs, while maximising the utilisation of resources. DWG3
TD(16)02013 The Delay, Angular and Polarization Characteristics of Geometry-based Clusters in an Indoor Environment at 11 GHz Band Panawit Hanpinitsak, Kentaro Saito, Junichi Takada, Minseok Kim, Lawrence Materum This paper presents indoor cluster spread and polarization characteristics taken from an estimated multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel of an indoor hall environment at 11 GHz band. The clusters were estimated by utilizing the authors’ proposed geometrybased clustering method in which the single bounce (SB) and double bounce (DB) multipath components (MPCs) can be distinguished. After that, cluster angular spread, delay spread and cross-polarization ratio (XPR) and copolarization ratio (CPR) for each type of clusters were calculated and investigated. The results showed that the spreads of DB clusters are larger compared to SB clusters. Moreover, the polarization characteristics comparison between them also showed significant difference due to high power loss in horizontally-polarized wave of the DB clusters. Furthermore, based on the statistical fitting results, it was found that the cluster delay and angular spreads both can be approximately described the lognormal distribution, as well as the cluster polarization ratio. This indicated that the channel modeling accuracy could be improved by modeling the SB and DB clusters separately. DWG1
TD(16)02014 Dense Multipath Component Characteristics in 11GHz-band Indoor Environments Kentaro Saito, Jun-ichi Takada, Minseok Kim In the next-generation mobile communication system, utilization of higher frequency bands above 10 GHz has become a hot research topic because it has the potential to improve network capacity drastically by utilizing the available wideband spectrum. However, in the higher frequency band, in addition to the higher propagation loss, diffuse scatterings of propagation waves affect the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission performance more significantly. In this paper, 11 GHz band MIMO channel measurements were conducted in line-of-sight (LoS) indoor environments to clarify the characteristics of diffuse scatterings in the higher frequency band. The frequency, angular, and the polarization domain dense multipath component (DMC) propagation parameters were jointly estimated by using RiMAX-based estimator to deal with the DMC contribution to MIMO channels quantitatively. In the measurements, significant DMCs were observed in all areas. The DMCs had directional and the polarization dependencies as well as frequency dependency. The DMC characteristics were different in each area. The angular spreads of the DMCs tended to increase and their decay factor tended to decrease as the room size decreased owing to the contribution of reverberation waves. For the validation, MIMO channel matrices were reconstructed from the estimated propagation parameters, and the results show that the MIMO transmission performance tended to be underestimated without the DMC contribution. The result is expected to be utilized for the novel MIMO channel model proposal in the higher frequency band that includes the DMC contribution. DWG1
TD(16)02015 Massive MIMO Propagation Models Henry Brice, Mark Beach, Evangelos Mellios The demand for capacity within existing mobile networks continues to increase as more subscribers and more devices communicate and as data-rich applications become more popular. The evolving 5G telecommunications standards aim to respond to such demand. A promising approach to increasing capacity and reliability within the context of 5G is Massive Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) where many transmit antennas are used relative to the number of users, thus providing a greater opportunity to use the spatial characteristics of the channel for spatial diversity and multiplexing. The deployment of Massive MIMO systems requires the development of new propagation models, which is the focus of this research, in order to simulate this new communication medium for multiple environments so that the design of the networks can be optimised in terms of reliability and efficiency. This project addresses the particular challenges of Massive MIMO propagation models through the use of simulation techniques. Ray-Tracing is used to create detailed deterministic models for urban environments, and data obtained through practical measurement campaigns in Bristol and with other universities is analysed to investigate, calibrate and identify the relevant statistical features of the channel. DWG1
TD(16)02016 On the Use of Serious Game Engineering for 5G System Performance Evaluation Carlos Herranz, David Martín-Sacristán, Saúl Inca, Jose F. Monserrat, Narcís Cardona This paper summarizes the current proposal of the METIS-II project on the use of serious game engineering approach for the evaluation and visualization of 5G technologies. Based on UNITY 3D, a realistic scenario has already been implemented, including a portion of a city with every level of detail. This article discusses the representation of results and interaction with a conventional simulation tool, showing clear cohesion between these two entities. (This TD corresponds to a paper presented in EUCNC’16 by the same authors) DWG1,DWG3r,EWG-RA
TD(16)02017 Bandwidth Dependence of the Ranging Error Variance in Dense Multipath Stefan Hinteregger, Erik Leitinger, Paul Meissner, Josef Kulmer, and Klaus Witrisal It is well known that the time-of-flight ranging performance is heavy influenced by multipath propagation within a radio environment. This holds in particular in \textit{dense }multipath channels as encountered in indoor scenarios. The signal bandwidth has a tremendous influence on this effect, as it determines whether the time resolution is sufficient to resolve the useful line-of-sight (LOS) signal component from interfering multipath. This paper employs a geometry-based stochastic channel model to analyze and characterize the ranging error variance as a function of the bandwidth, covering the narrowband up to the UWB regimes. The Cram\’er-Rao lower bound (CRLB) is derived for this purpose. It quantifies the impact of bandwidth, SNR, and parameters of the multipath radio channel and can thus be used as an effective and accurate \textit{channel model} (e.g.) for the cross-layer optimization of positioning systems. Experimental data are analyzed to validate our theoretical results. DWG1; EWG-LT
TD(16)02018 MIMO Gain and Bandwidth Scaling for RFID Positioning in Dense Multipath Channels Stefan Hinteregger, Erik Leitinger, Paul Meissner, and Klaus Witrisal This paper analyzes the achievable ranging and positioning performance for two design constraints in a radio frequency identification (RFID) system: (i) the bandwidth of the transmit signal and (ii) the use of multiple antennas at the readers. The ranging performance is developed for correlated and uncorrelated constituent channels by utilizing a geometry-based stochastic channel model for the downlink and the uplink. The ranging error bound is utilized to compute the precision gain for a ranging scenario with multiple collocated transmit and receive antennas. The position error bound is then split into a monostatic and bistatic component to analyze the positioning performance in a multiple input, multiple output (MIMO) RFID system. Simulation results indicate that the ranging variance is approximately halved when utilizing uncorrelated constituent channels in a monostatic setup. It is shown that both the bandwidth and the number of antennas decrease the error variance roughly quadratically. DWG1;EWG-LT
TD(16)02019 Consideration of directivity of antennas for high frequency wireless body area networks during human movements Takahiro Aoyagi As increased requirements for much high speed and capacity in wireless communications, frequency bands become higher, such as millimeter wave or terahertz wave. In these high frequency bands, beamforming is employed to gain stable connec- tivity. On-body body area network is one of fascinate application of these high capacity frequency bands. However, directions of on- body antennas largely varies and shadowing frequently occurs due to human movements. In this paper, variation of antenna directions and shadowing of on-body propagation during human walk movement is investigated. As a result, range of antenna rotation and shadowing rate, which can be used future system design of high frequency body area networks, is clarified. DWG1
TD(16)02020 Distributed Consensus Estimator of Hierarchical Network Transfer Function in WPNC Networks Jan Sykora Wireless Physical Layer Network Coding (WPNC) network nodes determine their front-end, back-end, and node processing operation depending on the knowledge of the global Hierarchical Network Transfer Function (H-NTF). The H-NTF can be derived from the network connectivity state and it is essential in determining how to perform hierarchical decoding, what hierarchical network coding function to use, and how to encode the Network Coded Modulation at each node. The data payload in WPNC network uses a common signal space of mutually interacting signals that superpose on the receive nodes. There are no orthogonalized communication links that would allow traditional signaling based approaches to determine the network state. Also, the procedure where each node establishes a complete picture of the network state must be performed before the payload phase and with superposing non-orthogonal pilot signals that fully respect the WPNC paradigm. This paper proposes a distributed consensus-based estimator of the network state which operates on a common signal space shared by all nodes in the network. The algorithm allows each node to find the global network state based only on local neighbor superposed pilot observation. DWG2
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TD(16)02022 Joint channel and carrier frequency offset estimation for UFMC Eric Simon and Florian Kaltenberger Many efforts are currently undertaken for the definition of enhanced multicarrier waveforms (post 4G LTE). These waveforms relax the time domain localiza- tion to impose well localized spectrum shape. UFMC is considered as one of the most serious candidate for the 5th Generation of wireless communication systems, which aims at replacing OFDM and enhances system robustness and performance in relaxed synchronization condition e.g. time-frequency misalignment. An extensive literature has shown the advantages of UFMC with respect to OFDM for these new requirements of 5G, however joint channel and CFO estimation for UFMC has not been investigated yet. This is the topic of this paper. We proposed an algorithm based on expectation-maximization to jointly estimate the channel impulse response and the CFO that occurs due to frequency mismatch between the oscillators at the receiver and at the transmitter DWG2
TD(16)02023 The Capacity of Cloud-RAN: Outer bound with Quantisation and Constrained Fronthaul Load Qinhui Huang and Alister Burr In this paper, we consider a distributed ‘massive MIMO’ system with multiple intermediate relays serving multiple sources jointly via a constrained fronthaul. Each relay employs uniform quantisation and the modulo operation to meet the bandwidth constraint. We derive the loss of the mutual informationdue to these processes. By adaptively optimising the interval of the lattice quantiser based on the channel, we evaluate the inevitable loss of mutual information under different modulo operations (fronthaul load per channel use). Numerical results reveal the outer bound of this scheme and the inevitable gap compared to the ideal C-RAN with infinite bandwidth. Implementation issues associated with this scheme are also investigated. DWG2
TD(16)02024 Iterative interference cancellation for FBMC and reduced-CP OFDM Yahya Harbi and Alister Burr Iterative decoding has been widely used to achieve reliable high data rate transmission for broadband multi-carriers communication systems. However, in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems with insufficient cyclic prefix (CP), there are significant challenges for efficient receiver design under the effect of the time-variant Long-Term Evolution (LTE) multipath channel. In this work, an iterative interference cancellation (IIC) with Wiener filter (WF) channel estimation is proposed using a Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) decoder with different patterns of scattered and preamble pilots for Filter Bank Multi-Carrier/Offset QAM (FBMC/OQAM) and OFDM systems. Pilots and data aided are considered. The bit error probability is compared with that of the conventional FFT- OFDM system with insufficient cyclic prefix (CP) under different environments. The results obtained show that the probability of error in the FBMC/OQAM scheme is improved in many scenarios. DWG2
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TD(16)02026 Validation of SCME wave fields Moray Rumney, Ya Jing, Sergio Cobos, Manuel Salmeron The verification of UE MIMO performance over the air (MIMO OTA) is being standardized by CTIA and 3GPP using the SCME UMa and UMi channel models. Two test methods that can emulate these spatial channels are the multi-probe anechoic (MPAC) boundary array method and the radiated two-stage (RTS) method. Validation of the correctness of the emulated spatial channels is one of the procedures that is being standardized. These procedures use reference dipoles to measure the temporal, spatial, power and cross polarization parameters of the test signal. Results show close alignment between different channel emulators and MIMO OTA test methods however, unexplained differences between test systems when measuring some commercial devices has been found. This paper investigates the sufficiency of the channel model validation procedures and the robustness of the definition of the SCME channel models when implemented in different channel emulators with a view to developing traceable validation procedures that can explain the observed differences between systems when measuring real devices. EWG-OTA
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TD(16)02028 Building testability into mmWave 5G Moray Rumney For most of the history of cellular radio we have relied on conducted measurements of base stations and devices where the impact of the antenna is discounted. This has been sufficient during the period when antenna performance has been reliable enough to extrapolate end-user experience in real networks. The introduction of smaller less efficient integral antennas in devices motivated the move towards over the air (OTA) testing to ensure antennas were of sufficient quality. SISO OTA test methods have been around since 2003 and will soon be augmented with MIMO OTA test methods. For the base station, SISO OTA is soon to be introduced for antenna arrays supporting elevation beamforming (full-dimension MIMO). With the plan to develop a new air interface for 5G at mmWave frequencies, all most base station and all device testing will need to be carried out OTA since cabled connections are not viable at mmWave frequencies involving antennas with multiple elements. This move to OTA represents an unprecedented step function in the complexity of testing cellular systems and will require the development of a variety of new test methods that provide a range of spatial and non-spatial test capability at different complexity/cost levels. Part of the development of viable OTA test methods will be the identification of base station and device special conformance test functions that enable control over the DUT in order to simplify or speed up the process of device testing. Due to the timescales of 5G, viable cost-effective test solutions need to be found very quickly as there is no cabled fallback like in earlier generations. The work to identify test methods and possible conformance test functions has started in 3GPP and this paper describes some early ideas with a view to motivating further timely contributions from industry and academia. EWG-OTA
TD(16)02029 A Study of the Energy Detection Threshold in the IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA/CA Martina Barbi, Kamran Sayrafian, Mehdi Alasti A Body Area Network (BAN) is a radio interface standard for wireless connectivity of wearable and implantable sensors located inside or in close proximity to the human body. Medical applications requirements impose stringent constraints on the reliability, and quality of service performance in these networks. Interference from other co-located BANs or nearby devices that share the same spectrum could greatly impact the data link reliability in these networks. Specifically, the CSMA/CA MAC protocol as outlined in the IEEE802.15.6 BAN standard involves the use of an energy detection threshold to determine the status of the transmission channel i.e. idle versus busy. In this technical document, we would like to show that the use of such static thresholds could negatively impact the performance of the system composed of multiple co-located BANs. It could also lead to starvation or unfair treatment of a node that is experiencing excessive interference due to its physical location relative to all other nodes in the system. A simulation platform is presented to highlight this problem and investigate the performance impact. EWG-IoT
TD(16)02030 SER analysis of QPSK modulated Physical Layer Network Coding for system-level simulation Cheng Chen and Alister Burr System-level simulation has been widely used recently to evaluate the performance of wireless networks. In this paper we consider the simulation of a dense, multi-hop wireless network which applies Physical Layer Network Coding (PNC), as developed in the DIWINE project. The DIWINE system-level simulator calculates the packet error probability (PER) at the relay against the signal and noise power. The above PER could be deduced from the relay’s symbol error rate (SER). Here we analyse the SER of QPSK modulated Physical Layer Network Coding for the case where two source signals are received at one relay, since this forms a building block of many typical networks. DWG2
TD(16)02031 Massive MIMO Mobility Measurements in LOS with Power Control Paul Harris, Wael Boukley Hasan, Henry Brice, Mark Beach, Evangelos Mellios, Andrew Nix, Simon Armour, Angela Doufexi Massive Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output (MIMO) has shown great potential as a capacity enhancing technology for 5G wireless, but performance under mobility has been largely unexplored. Furthermore, it is under these circumstances that power control becomes critical to obtain acceptable performance. In this paper, we provide an overview of the first real-time massive MIMO mobility measurements conducted only weeks ago at Lund University, and present results for a spatial domain power control algorithm applied in one of these scenarios. DWG2,EWG-RA
TD(16)02032 Ground-to-X polarimetric radio channel characterization in forest scenarios Pierre Laly, Rose Mazari, Guy Grunfelder, Davy P. Gaillot, Shiqi Cheng, Jean-Marie Floch, Martine Liénard, Pierre Degauque, Emmeric Tanghe, Wout Joseph Coarse localization of an injured person in a forest environment can be made owing to his mobile cell phone and through the cellular network. However if this person is unable to give a call and if its phone is not equipped with a software automatically sending GPS information to rescue members, determining its accurate position can only be made by deploying a dedicated localization system in the search zone. This can be done owing to direction finding equipment onboard either a vehicle or a drone flying over the zone, this equipment forcing the mobile phone to transmit a signal. The localization accuracy being strongly dependent on the propagation channel characteristics, measurements have been carried out with a MIMO channel sounder at a center frequency of 1.35 GHz and with an 80 MHz bandwidth. Each array element is a dual-polarized patch antenna allowing a multidimensional polarimetric estimation of the channel. The transmitting array is always placed near the ground surface while the receiving array is below or over the canopy when onboard a vehicle or at different altitudes when onboard a drone. Path loss, delay spread and coherence bandwidth are studied for different relative orientations of the antennas, including co- and cross-polarization configurations. Directions of arrival of the rays are deduced from the MIMO matrix owing to a high resolution algorithm. DWG1,DWG2
TD(16)02033 Non-linear PNC mapping for hierarchical wireless network Alister Burr We discuss the requirements of a general (not necessarily linear) physical-layer network coding (PNC) mapping function for application in a network containing multiple sources and multiple relays. We consider the definition of linearity in such a mapping, then the requirements for unambiguous decoding of the output of the network, and finally the effect of singular fading in the links to a given relay. Hence we show how a mapping scheme can be designed for a specific topology and a specific set of channels. We note also however that such schemes are not likely to be readily compatible with a layered network coded modulation scheme, in which error control coding is separated from the network coding function. DWG2
TD(16)02034 Characterization and Modeling of the MIMO Radio channel in the W-band Davy P. Gaillot, Maria-Teresa Martinez-Ingles, Juan Pascual-Garcia, Martine Lienard, José-Víctor Rodríguez, and Jose-Maria Molina-Garcia-Pardo In this work, polarimetric MIMO matrices were measured in an indoor office at 94 GHz with a 3 GHz bandwidth using a VNA-based virtual radio channel sounder approach. Initial investigation of the polarimetric large-scale parameters such as the root mean square (rms) delay spread and path loss computed from the transfer functions is discussed for 15 Tx – Rx positions. In addition, the RiMAX framework, validated thanks to a ray-tracer tool developed at UPCT, was used to estimate the specular multipath components (MPC) and dense multipath components (DMC) from which the delay and angular RMS values, weighted mean delay and angles, number of MPC were computed. In addition, the reverberation time and DMC contribution to the radio channel total power is presented as a function of distance. This preliminary work will be used to build more advanced polarimetric path loss models and/or parametric/stochastic channel models which are missing in the literature for the W-band. DWG1,DWG2
TD(16)02035 Frequency Dependency of Measured Highly Resolved Directional Propagation Channel Characteristics Jonas Medbo, Nima Seifi, Henrik Asplund, Fredrik Harrysson An indoor measurement campaign has been conducted in order to determine any frequency dependent characteristics of the directional radio propagation channel over the frequency range 6-60 GHz. For the analysis a novel method, which previously has been proven to provide exceptional measurement accuracy at 58.7 GHz, is used. Herein it is shown that the measured channel power distributions over direction and delay are surprisingly similar over the full frequency range in both LOS and NLOS conditions. One exception is that the window transmission attenuation and reflectivity is substantially different at the two frequencies 5.8 GHz and 14.8 GHz. This difference results in that one of two dominant pathways at 14.8 GHz goes out of the building and is reflected off an adjacent building back in again to the receiver location. This does not occur at 5.8 GHz as the windows block penetration at this frequency. DWG1
TD(16)02036 Experimental Ultra Wideband Path Loss Models for Implant Communications C. Garcia-Pardo, R. Chávez-Santiago, A. Fornes-Lea), S. Castelló-Palacios, A. Vallés-Lluch, C. Andreu, I. Balasingham and N. Cardona Abstract—Ultra wideband (UWB) signals possess characteristics that may enable high data rate communications with deeply implanted medical sensors and actuators. Nevertheless, this application could be hindered in part by international spectrum regulations, which restrict UWB communications to 3.1-10.6 GHz where propagation conditions through the human body are rather unfavorable. Therefore, for the proper feasibility assessment and design of implant communications using UWB signals, accurate models of the radio channel are of utmost importance. Hence, we present UWB path loss models for the two most commonly used implant communication scenarios, i.e., in-body to on-body (IB2OB) and in-body to off-body (IB2OFF). These models were extracted from in vivo measurements in the abdominal cavity within 3.1-8.5 GHz using a living porcine subject. A thorough comparison between this modeling approach and channel measurements using a homogeneous phantom, which mimics the electromagnetic behaviour of muscle tissue, is presented too. Measurements in a homogeneous propagation medium are simpler to perform, but they fail to capture several physiological effects observed in a living subject. Thus, we measured the deviation between the phantom-based and in-vivo-based path loss models. In general, phantom measurements yielded a more pessimistic estimation of the path loss. We provide the correction factors to adjust easy-toperform phantom-based measurements to more realistic path loss values, which can assist the biomedical engineer in the early stages of design and testing of wireless implantable devices. EWG-IoT
TD(16)02037 How to optimally tune sparse network coding over wireless links Pablo Garrido, Ramón Agüero Despite their high computational complexity, Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) techniques offer a notable robustness against packet erasure wireless links. Some novel approaches have been recently proposed to reduce such computational burden, for both encoder and decoder elements. One of those are the so-called Tunable Sparse Network Coding (TSNC) techniques, which advo- cate limiting the number of packets that are combined to build a coded packet. They also propose to dynamically adapt the corresponding sparsity level, as the transmission evolves, although an optimum tuning has not been proposed so far. In this paper we propose a TSNC implementation that exploits a novel analytical model to estimate the probability of generating an innovative packet (linearly independent combination), given the current status at the decoder. Taking advantage of the model’s accuracy, the proposed scheme shows a gain of ≈ 2 times, compared to previous TSNC implementations. Furthermore, we broaden the analysis of TSNC techniques by thoroughly assessing their performance over wireless networks over the ns- 3 platform. The results yield a remarkable complexity reduction (≈ 70%), without jeopardizing the network performance. DWG3
TD(16)02038 Electrical Balance Duplexer performance in a High Speed Rail Applications Leo Laughlin, Chunqing Zhang, Mark Beach, Kevin Morris, John Haine Electrical Balance Duplexers (EBDs) can achieve high transmit-to-receive (Tx-Rx) isolation, but can be affected by interaction between the antenna and the environment. Dynamic antenna reflections coefficients measured on board a high speed train have been embedded into EBD circuit simulations to determine the Tx-Rx isolation, and requirements for circuit adaptation, in a high speed rail scenario. Results show that electromagnetic interaction between the antenna and the environmental outside the train is limited, and thus that high speed circuit adaptation is not required in this environment. However the results may have been affected by the metallized tinted window on board the train, and therefore the investigation should be repeated on older rolling stock without metallized windows to determine what effect this may have had. DWG2
TD(16)02039 CHANNEL PROPAGATION EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS AND SIMULATIONS AT 52 GHz B. Montenegro-Villacieros, J. Bishop, S. Salous, X. Raimundo This paper presents initial results on the comparison of channel propagation experimental measurements and ray-tracing simulations at 52 GHz in an outdoor scenario. The results show that long range reflections from metallic structures contribute to the received multipath components in both the simulation and the measurements. However, the diffuse multipath components arising from rough surfaces captured by the high resolution channel sounder are not reproduced in the simulator. Further calibration of such tools is therefore necessary prior to their application as channel prediction tools DWG1
TD(16)02040 Envisioning Spectrum Management In Virtualised C-RAN Imad Al-Samman, Matteo Artuso, Henrik Christiansen, Angela Doufexi, Mark Beach Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) has attracted a worldwide attention in both academia and industry. This network architecture re-forming has been considered as a potential solution to meet the increasing capacity demands for future mobile data traffic. In addition, Network irtualisation is a promising technique for efficient resource utilisation. This paper proposes a customizable resource virtualization algorithm for multi user data scheduling in a Long Term Evolution (LTE) C-RAN deployment. The algorithm is based on the hypervisor’s specific allocation assignment of air interface resources between the virtual operators (VOs) dynamically, based on either joint scheduling or per cell schemes. The objective is to improve the resource allocation mechanism based on traffic conditions and a database of pre-defined services priorities. Two distinctive scenarios are considered and evaluated against standard Round Robin (RR) C-RAN scheduling technique. Simulation results show improvements in the overall throughput traffic and reduction in end-to-end delay for delay sensitive applications. In addition, an assessment of fairness guarantee is considered across all users. DWG2,EWG-OTA,EWG-RA
TD(16)02041 Impulsive noises and dependence – preliminary considerations Emilie Soret, Laurent Clavier, Gareth Peters Following works presented in IC1004, we propose in this TD some further considerations about solutions for modeling dependence in impulsive noises. We use the copula framework that allows to reprensent, for instance, the upper and lower tail dependencies that can not be captured by classical correlation (which, besides, is not adapted to alpha-stable distributions). To illustrate the copula approach we consider a receiver architecture. The noise is modeled as a bivariate dependent Cauchy noise. If the copula represents the dependence structure we can derive the likelihood ratio that exhibits two components: one from the marginals and one from the copulas. We can then illustrate the impact of the dependence structure on the decision regions and we show that ignoring this dependence at the receiver side can importantly degrade the system performance. DWG2
TD(16)02042 Peer-Assisted Individual Assessment in a Multi-Agent System Li Wenjie, Francesca Bassi, Laura Galluccio, and Michel Kieffer Consider a community of agents, all collaborating to perform a predefined task (sensing, detection, classification…), but with different levels of ability (LoA). Initially, each agent does not know how well it performs in comparison with its peers and it is thus willing to assess its ability. This general scenario is relevant, e.g., in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), or in the context of crowd sensing, where devices with embedded sensing capabilities collaboratively collect data to characterize the surrounding environment: the global performance is very sensitive to the quality of the gathered measurements and agents providing outliers or bad-quality measurements should themselves avoid transmitting data. This paper presents a distributed algorithm allowing each agent to assess its ability at doing some task. This assessment involves pairwise interactions with peers and a local comparison test, able to determine which, among two agents performs better. The dynamics of the proportions of agents with similar beliefs in their LoA are described using continuous-time state equations. The existence of an equilibrium is shown. Closed-form expressions for the various proportions of agents with similar beliefs in their LoA is provided at equilibrium. Simulation results match well theoretical results in the context of agents equipped with sensors and aiming at determining the performance of their equipment. EWG-IoT
TD(16)02043 Ground reflection modelling in millimeter wave channels Shangbin Wu, Stephan Jaeckel, Fabian Undi A typical deployment scenario in the millimeter-wave is that antennas at base stations (BSs) are elevated while user terminals (UTs) are placed in urban environment, e.g. on street level height. In this case, the ground reflection can produce a strong propagation path that superimposes with the direct path and induces severe fading effects. In this TD, the modelling of ground reflection in milllimeter-wave will be presented. DWG1
TD(16)02044 OpenAirInterface Massive MIMO Testbed: A 5G Innovation Platform Florian Kaltenberger, Xiwen Jiang Massive MIMO is one of the key technologies enabling the next generation of wireless communications. With its high potential in increasing network capacity, offering high spectrum efficiency, saving transceivers’ energy and many other advantages,Massive MIMO has attracted great attention from the research and industrial community. The OpenAirInterface Massive MIMO testbed is built on the open source 5G platformOpenAirInterface. It is one of the world’s’ first LTE full protocol stack compatible base stations equipped with large antenna array, which can directly provide services to commercial user equipments (UEs). It shows the feasibility of using Massive MIMO in LTE standard, indicating the possibility of smoothly evolving the wireless network from 4G to5G. It provides an innovation platform in solving 5G challenges, by giving the possibility of advanced algorithm testing, concept validation, channel measurements, etc. EWG-RA
TD(16)02045 A miniaturized pattern reconfigurable antenna for automotive applications Jerzy Kowalewski, Tobias Mahler, Jonathan Mayer, Thomas Zwick This paper presents a realization approach of a pattern reconfigurable antenna. Based on the results of the previous research using wave propagation simulation, the radiation patterns optimized for automotive urban scenarios are chosen. The patterns are determined by a special antenna synthesis method. The antenna in this work generates two switchable patterns obtained from this synthesis. The first one is in and against the driving direction and the second is directed orthogonal to the driving direction to the left and right hand sides of the vehicle. The pattern switching is realized by switching the phase between the parallel fed radiating elements. An easy method of phase switching with means of a tapered line balun and p-i-n diodes is proposed. The antenna covers the 2.45 GHz ISM band, and therefore can be easily used for measurements in an unlicensed band. As a proof of concept a prototype of the antenna utilizing p-i-n diodes as switching elements has been fabricated and measured. The maximal gain achieved is about 6.5 dBi. The measurement results correspond well with the simulation results in terms of S-parameter and radiation. DWG1
TD(16)02046 Double-directional Dual-polarimetric Ultra-wideband Cluster-based Characterization of 70-77 GHz Indoor Propagation Channels Cen Ling, Xuefeng Yin, Robert Müller, Stephan Häfner, Diego Dupleich, Christian Schneider, Jian Luo, Hua Yan and Reiner S. Thomä Recently, a measurement campaign for characterizing delay, spatial and polarimetric radio channels ranging from 70 GHz to 77 GHz was carried out in the small office and entrance hall scenarios respectively. Composite channel behaviors and statistics are analyzed and compared for various measurement configurations. Based on the multi-dimensional power spectra of delay, direction (i.e. azimuth and co-elevation) of departure and arrival, the multipaths are further grouped into clusters via K- means, threshold-based and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) approaches. Besides, the spatial positions of the clusters are identified by using the measurement-based ray tracer (MBRT) method, and both first- and last-hop scatterers along propagation paths between the transceivers are localized. Those results manifest the merits of the threshold-based clustering algorithm in case of clusters’ compactness, separation and exclusiveness, and the significance of the localization techniques for the propagation clusters. Additionally, it is noted that the deployment of the networks, such as the geometry size of the environment, both positions and heights of the Txs and Rxs, and the polarization combinations exerts tremendous influence on the statistical chan- nel models and characteristics of the indoor millimeter- (mm- )wave propagation. DWG1
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TD(16)02048 Hybrid self-interference cancellation for small form factor realization of in-band full duplex Chunqing Zhang, Leo Laughlin, Mark A. Beach, Kevin A. Morris, and John Haine “In-band full-duplex (IBFD) which operates on the same frequency at the same time has the potential to double the spectrum efficiency. However, this proposal needs high isolation of the transceiver to mitigate the self-interference (SI) which results from co-located co-channel transmitter and receiver. This paper presents a hybrid SI cancellation architecture which consists of two stages of analog cancellation and one stage of digital base band cancellation. A prototype based on this hybrid architecture and corresponding achievable cancellation performance will be discussed. Simulation results show the overall isolation suppresses the SI 3dB higher than the noise floor of the receiver DWG1
TD(16)02049 Presenting the VISTA (Virtual Road) experimental facility for automotive research of TU Ilmenau F. Wollenschläger, W. Kotterman, C. Bornkessel, G. Del Galdo, R. Thomä, M. Hein The Virtual Road experimental facility in Ilmenau has been built by the Technische Universität Ilmenau for advanced automotive research in the context of the Thyringian Innovation Centre on Mobility, established at Ilmenau. VISTA with its large (semi-)anechoic chamber with its integrated antenna measurement range for automobiles and its dynamometer for experiments with cars with running engines is a unique facility that is presented in this TD to the IRACON EWG IoT EWG-IoT
TD(16)02050 Network Function Virtualization of Software-Defined Internet of Things Chiara Buratti, Franco Callegati, Simone Cerboni, Walter Cerroni, Slavica Tomovic, Roberto Verdone One of the challenges of 5G (5-th Generation) wireless networks will be the integration of mobile radio access with the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. Billions of objects equipped with sensors and radio interfaces will be connected to network entities managing the control plane in a centralized way, as postulated by many stake- holders. To pave the way towards this novel approach, we present an architecture for virtualization of IoT networks, including an intent-based north-bound interface and a virtualized infrastructure manager, allowing virtualization of IoT resources. The architecture exploits the Software- Defined paradigm, including an IoT Controller able to program different networks with the aim of providing to users the intended service at the requested QoS. A first prototype of the architecture is presented and some preliminary results, related to round trip time are provided. EWG-IoT
TD(16)02051 The Over-the-Air facilities at Fraunhofer’s FORTE W. Kotterman, M. Landmann, F. Raschke, M. Hein, R. Thomä, and G. Del Galdo The Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Systems (IIS) has established FORTE (Facility for Over-the-Airesearch and Testing) in Ilmenau, in cooperation with TU Ilmenau. In this paper, its two OTA facilities are presented to COST IRACON EWG IoT in connection with the stand-alone LTE-network. The OTA facilities comprise the virtual electromagnetic environment for test objects up to the size of small cars in the frequency band of about 800 to 6000 GHz and the virtual satellite test range in Ka and Ku band for SatCom-on-the-Move and LTE-over-Sat. EWG-IoT
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TD(16)02056 Reproducing Standard SCME Channel Models for Massive MIMO Base Station Radiated Testing Wei Fan, Fengchun Zhang, Tommi Jämsä, Mattias Gustafsson, Pekka Kyösti and Gert F. Pedersen Massive MIMO is a multi-user technology, where radio base stations (BSs) are equipped with a large-scale antenna array to simultaneously serve many terminals in the same time-frequency resource. As a comparison, only up to eight antennas for BSs are specified in 4G LTE standards. Performance evaluation of such large-scale antenna systems is challenging. In this TD, we propose to evaluate massive MIMO BSs with a sectorized MPAC setup. A sectorized MAPC setup with 16 OTA antennas distributed uniformly within $[-60^o, 60^o]$ is utilized to evaluate performance of a $8\times8$ and $16\times16$ uniform planar array at 3.5 GHz, respectively. Radio channel emulation in terms of power anglular spectrum, spatial correlation and beamforming pattern is investigated for the proposed MPAC setup and desired channel models. EWG-OTA
TD(16)02057 GNSS-SDR: An open source software-defined GNSS receiver Carles Fernandez-Prades This paper presents a new platform for the experimentation with GNSS signals. It includes a set of commercial of-the-shelf hardware and an open source software, constituting a state-of-the-art platform for research and development of next-generation GNSS receivers. The core of the platform is GNSS-SDR, an open source software-defined GNSS receiver which has been extended to support multi-band and multi-system operations. As a relevant case of use to validate the research facility, we present a triple band GNSS-SDR customization capable of receiving four GNSS signals in real- time: GPS L1 C/A, GPS L2CM and Galileo E5a. In addition, we provided detailed descriptions of the receiver architecture, identifying the synchronization challenges of the multi-system satellite channels and providing practical and reproducible solutions. The source code developed to produce this paper has been released under the General Public License, and it is freely available on the Internet. EWG-LT
TD(16)02058 Device-To-Device graph-oriented Resource Allocation in LTE Uplink using SC-FDMA Johannes Baumgarten and Thomas Kürner Future cellular networks will support device-to-device (D2D) communication and thereby enable a plethora of new applications. Through the reuse of cellular resources in the currently less used uplink spectrum, D2D can increase the efficiency of resource use and help to cope with the ever-increasing data traffic. In this paper, we present an interference-graph based approach for LTE D2D resource allocation with multi-user sharing of Resource Blocks(RB) while respecting the SC-FDMA constraint of assigning continuous RBs to each UE. The numerical simulations show great potential gains with an increasing amount of D2D communication pairs per cell. DWG3