3rd TM – Lisbon, Portugal, February 1 – 3, 2017

TD Title Author(s) Abstract WG(s)
TD(17)03001 Metallic Coupling Frame-based HF RFID Cards Shrief Rizkalla, Ralph Prestros, Christoph F. Mecklenbräuker A novel design for HF RFID cards uses a module (containing a coil with a chip) and a metallic coupling frame with a slot which allows better coupling and higher performance compared to the standalone module. This design eliminates the need for a mechanical physical connection between the card body (coupling frame) and module, which reduces the manufacturing costs. We explain the theory of operation of such a design and the effect of the slot, in addition to creating the circuit model of the card. Furthermore, we propose an enhancement to the card design which improves the voltage transferred from the reader to the module by nearly 3 times. The enhancement is shown by HFSS simulations, circuit simulations and measurements including a chip. EWG-IoT
TD(17)03002 Pattern Reconfigurable Antenna With Four Directions Hidden in the Vehicle Roof Gerald Artner, Jerzy Kowalewski, Christoph F. Mecklenbräuker, Thomas Zwick Chassis integrated antenna modules offer ten times the space of conventional automotive roof mounted antenna modules and can be fully concealed beneath the roofline. A pattern reconfigurable antenna for 2.6GHz LTE is measured inside an automotive chassis module. The antenna can be electrically reconfigured to radiate towards the front, back, left or right side of the vehicle. Measurement results show that the antenna retains this ability when being hidden beneath the roof, proving that it is possible and feasible to hide antennas utilizing pattern diversity inside chassis modules. EWG-IoT +EWG-OTA
TD(17)03003 Communications for Public Protection and Disaster Relief: Overview and Vision Toward the Future Pedro Alvito Silva and Fernando José Velez This paper gives an overview on communications for Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR), and its way towards the future, where it will use Long Term Evolution (LTE). Is exposed the well known characteristics of narrowband systems, such as Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA), Tetrapol Publicly Available Specification (TETRAPOL) or Project 25 (P25). The LTE networks growth pace is also analyzed by means of an LTE competitive analysis. As security is a key topic in PPDR, the LTE security architecture is also addressed. The possibility of network sharing is also mentioned as a possibility to reduce the Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) and the Operational Expenditure (OPEX). The new LTE features developed for PPDR networks are also described, with an updated news related with. Aspects of prioritization are analyzed in light of the LTE proposal. Finally, spectrum management issues in PPDR networks are presented. Some challenges to reach into a PPDR network based on LTE in a near future are discussed in the conclusion. The availability of broadband will certainly create the possibility of supporting a wide variety of services, which will definitely benefit operators and users. Keywords—PPDR; LTE; prioritization; spectrum management. DWG3
TD(17)03004 High Performance Cloud Ray-Tracing Simulator and Its Application to High Speed Train Communications Danping He, Ke Guan, Longhe Wang, Bo Ai, Zhangdui Zhong Ray tracing simulation has played an important role in communication channel modeling. However, accurate simulation under complex scenario greatly challenge the computational capa- bilities of personal computer. In this presentation, a high performance computing (HPC) based cloud ray-tracing simulator (RT) is introduced. The application of the RT to 3GPP high speed train (HST) scenarios is demonstrated and the propagation channel is studied at 30 GHz and 3.5 GHz. Urban, cutting and viaduct scenarios are modeled, suggestions are provided to guide high-data-rate HST communication system design. The results indicate that jointly using RT and HPC have been illustrated to be an efficient approach for high accurate simulation for HST channel. DWG1
TD(17)03005 Millimeter-Wave Outdoor-to-Indoor Channel Measurements at 3, 10, 17 and 60 GHz Cheikh A. L. Diakhate, Jean-Marc Conrat, Jean-Christophe Cousin, Alain Sibille Millimeter-Wave (mmW) communication systems, capable of achieving high data rates thanks to the large bandwidth available in this frequency range, are a promising 5G technology. Studies in this paper investigate the radio propagation channel at 3, 10, 17 and 60 GHz in an Outdoor-to-Indoor (O2I) scenario. Measurements were conducted using a wideband channel sounder to derive channel parameters such as building penetration losses and channel delay spread values. It was observed that signal attenuation is strongly material-dependent and also, to some extent, frequency-dependent as well. However, the delay spread is weakly correlated with the frequency. DWG1
TD(17)03006 An Approach to Mean Path Loss Model Estimation for Off-Body Channels Kenan Turbic, Slawomir J. Ambroziak, Luis M. Correia This paper presents an approach to estimation of the mean path loss model parameters in off-body Body Area Networks channels. In this approach, the path loss exponent is constrained to a value obtained for the line-of-sight (LoS) propagation in the co-polarised channel, considering a generalised static scenario. The comparison of the goodness of fit between the proposed approach and other approaches, for a set of measurements obtained in an indoor environment, indicates that a significantly better model is obtained for the LoS case, somewhat improved model for the quasi-LoS, while the goodness of fit is almost unchanged for the non-LoS case. EWG-IoT+DWG1
TD(17)03007 Optimal Aggregation Throughput is Nearly Constant Magnus M. Halldorsson and Tigran Tonoyan One of the most fundamental tasks in sensor networks is the computation of a (compressible) aggregation function of the input measurements. What rate of computation can be maintained, by properly choosing the aggregation tree, the TDMA schedule of the tree edges, and the transmission powers? This can be viewed as the convergecast capacity of a wireless network. We show here that the optimal rate is effectively a constant, under the physical model of interference. This holds even in arbitrary networks, where nodes are arbitrarily located in the plane. This compares with previous bounds that are logarithmic (e.g., Omega(1\log n)). Namely, we show that a rate of Omega(1/log^* Delta is possible, where Delta is the length diversity (ratio between the furthest to the shortest distance between nodes). This is achieved using the natural minimum spanning tree (MST). Surprisingly, this barely non-constant bound is best possible for MSTs. DWG2
TD(17)03008 SegHyPer: Segmentation- and Hypothesis based Network Performance Evaluation for High Speed Train Users Taulant Berisha, Philipp Svoboda, Stephan Ojak, and Christoph F. Mecklenbräuker Two solutions are presented to overcome the coverage and low bit rate problems for cellular network services in high mobility: amplify-and-forward Moving Relay Nodes (MRNs) and prototypical windows on-board Wi-Fi enabled High Speed Trains (HSTs). This paper focuses on 3G/4G User Equipments (UEs) located on-board the high Vehicular Penetration Loss (VPL) vehicles travelling throughout long range geographical routes. This work is supported by extensive real-world measurements conducted along Austrian railways such as from Vienna to Salzburg and from Vienna to Graz. We propose a novelistic approach established by multi-level non-parametric hypotheses tests based on route segmentation link quality parameters to enable micro-analysis in current and future cellular networks for mobile users on-board railjet HST with- and without treatment. EWG-OTA + EWG IoT
TD(17)03009 Real-time Localization of a Moving Target Using Hybrid RSS and AoA Measurements Slavisa Tomic, Marko Beko, and Rui Dinis This paper addresses the target tracking problem, by extracting received signal strength (RSS) and angle of arrival (AoA) information from the received radio signal, in the case where the target transmit power is considered unknown. By combining the radio observations with prior knowledge given by the target transition state model, we apply the maximum a posteriori (MAP) criterion to the marginal posterior distribution function (PDF). However, the derived MAP estimator cannot be solved directly, so we tightly approximate it for small noise power. The target state estimate is then easily obtained at any time step by employing a recursive approach, typical for Bayesian methods. Our simulations confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, offering excellent estimation accuracy in all considered scenarios. EWG-LT
TD(17)03010 Joint beamforming and network topology optimization of green cloud radio access networks Alaa Alameer and Aydin Sezgin Cloud radio access networks (C-RAN) are a promising technology to enable the ambitious vision of the fifth-generation (5G) communication networks. In spite of the potential benefits of C-RAN, the operational costs are still a challenging issue, mainly due to the centralized processing scheme and the large number of operating remote radio head (RRH) connecting to the cloud. We consider the green C-RAN setup which is powered partially with a set of renewable energy sources (RESs) and the interaction with the main-grid through buying/selling deficit/surplus energy from/to main-grid is assumed. In this system setup, we want to minimize the processing/backhauling costs at the cloud center as well as the transmission power at the RRHs, while satisfying some user quality of service (QoS). This problem is first formulated as a mixed integer non linear program (MINLP) with a large number of optimization variables. The underlying NLP is non-convex, though we address this issue through reformulating the problem using the mean squared error (MSE)-rate relation. To account to the large scale of the problem, we introduce slack variables to decompose the reformulated (MINLP) and enable the application of a distributed optimization framework by using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) algorithm. Our results shows a point at which surplus and deficit energy are equal. EWG-RA
TD(17)03011 Gilbert-Elliot Performance Modeling of Vehicular-to-Vehicular Packet Transmissions Thomas Blazek, Christoph F. Mecklenbräuker Safety applications of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) are limited in their performance by the latency of the communication more than by the achieved throughput. However, there exist few models at packet level that are able to capture the short-term performance behavior of the communication. We therefore introduce a packet error model that considers burstiness as well as mean packet errors. The foundation of our approach is the Gilbert-Elliot model, which is able to model not only the packet error rate, but also the burst durations of the packet errors, which we interpret in a time variant fashion. We formulate maximum likelihood expressions for the time variant model fits, and then proceed to fit the parameters to extensive recorded measurements. We consider the fading statistics of the measured channel as well as the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and present how they influence the channel burstiness. Our analysis demonstrates that the communication shows strong bursts at packet level, proving the requirements for such models. The approach we demonstrate here remains of low computational complexity, allowing future employment in large-scale simulations. EWG-OTA + EWG-IoT
TD(17)03012 Experimental Analysis of Aligment Impact in Short Communications at 300 GHz María-Teresa Martínez-Inglés, Davy P. Gaillot, Jose-Maria Molina-Garcia-Pardo, José-Víctor Rodríguez, Juan Pascual-García, Leandro Juan-Llácer and Martine Lienard This work shows preliminary results at 300 GHz, where the effect of misalignment between directive antennas is studied. It is shown than 2 degrees results in a 3 dB loss. Also, multiple specular reflections are found between both antennas at this mmW frequency in such short commutations. DWG1
TD(17)03013 A synchronization-free method for estimating TDOA: technique and proof-of-concept Franc ̧ois Quitin, Franc ̧ois Horlin, Philippe De Doncker The difficulty of estimating time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) lies in the fact that the network of receiver nodes needs to be synchronized to obtain accurate results. This paper presents a technique for estimating TDOA where explicit synchronization between nodes is not required. By forwarding the baseband signal from a first receiver node to a second receiver node, the time offset between the nodes is effectively canceled out, and the TDOA between the two nodes can be easily estimated. All that is required is to know the propagation delay between the two receiver nodes, and to ensure that the clock skew is relatively low. The proposed method is implemented on a software-defined radio testbed and validated in a controlled lab environment. The method is also tested in an outdoor line-of-sight environment with a network of four receiver nodes, and localization results and TDOA estimation errors are presented. EWG-LT
TD(17)03014 Performance Comparison of Uplink and Downlink Techniques under DUDe Strategy for Heterogeneous Networks Hui Wang, Mario Garcia-Lozano, Edward Mutafungwa, Xuefeng Yin and Silvia Ruiz In this paper, we demonstrate the principle of Cell Range Expansion (CRE) and enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination(eICIC), illustrating the Down-link Up-link Decoupling (DUDe) strategy, which is prevalent recently. We make the performance comparison of former methods with DUDe under synthetic and realistic scenarios, which is novel as we known by far. The realistic scenario is based on Vienna urban digital map. We present a reasonable idea that combining CRE and DUDe, taking use of their advantages together. From simulation results, both DUDe and CRE + eICIC can bring dramatic increase in Up-link (UL) throughput. The gain for edge users when using DUDe in realistic scenario can up to 767%. However, CRE+eICIC outperform DUDe in Down-link (DL) throuhgput due to larger signal coverage and optimized resources allocation algorithm. After combining DUDe with CRE, not only the UL but also the DL Quality of Service (QoS) is improved greatly. It also avoid the reduction of system capacity brought by eICIC. This new stratety is promising and will be a strong candidate in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). DWG3+DWG2
TD(17)03015 Assessing Measurement Distances for OTA Testing of Massive MIMO Base Station at 28 GHz Pekka Kyösti, Wei Fan, Jukka Kyröläinen This paper discusses physical dimensions for a multi probe anechoic chamber based (MPAC) over-the-air (OTA) setup aiming for base station (BS) testing. The target frequency of the simulated massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) BS arrays is 28 GHz. The assessment is performed with two metrics. The first metric is a new power metric based on assumptions of a code book of fixed beams and planar waves. The second one is the multi-user (MU) MIMO sum rate capacity. The intention is to evaluate physical dimensions in metres with respect to different BS array sizes. Simulation results indicate that OTA performance of a BS array with maximum dimension of 0.15 m could be measured with a setup having measurement distance of approximately 1 m. EWG-OTA+EWG-RA
TD(17)03016 Real-Time Channel Emulation of a Geometry-Based Stochastic Channel Model on a SDR Platform Markus Hofer, Zhinan Xu, Thomas Zemen In wireless vehicular communication scenarios the channel properties change rapidly over time. Both, the transmitter and the receiver, are moving, which generates not only time and frequency (doubly) selective channels but also channel statistics that are non-stationary, i.e., they change over time. New wireless vehicular communication systems within connected autonomous vehicles require validation and verification in vehicular environments to assure their proper functionality. To avoid time intensive, costly and {difficult to repeat} real-world measurements on the road, real-time channel emulators that target on emulating the wireless vehicular channel as accurately as possible, are needed. In this paper we present a real-time channel emulator based on a software defined radio platform that is able to emulate real-valued path delays and Doppler shifts within a certain delay and Doppler region. The emulator uses a low-complexity subspace expansion model where the emulation complexity on the field programmable gate array (FPGA) is independent from the number of propagation paths. This makes it suitable to emulate realistic geometry-based non-stationary channel models with a large number of propagation paths. EWG-OTA+EWG-IoT
TD(17)03017 / / / /
TD(17)03018 Accurate Broadband Measurement of Electromagnetic Tissue Phantoms Using Open-Ended Coaxial Systems Alejandro Fornes-Leal, Concepcion Garcia-Pardo, Narcís Cardona, Sergio Castelló-Palacios, Ana Vallés-Lluch New technologies and devices for wireless communication networks are continually developed. In order to assess their performance, they have to be tested in realistic environments taking into account the influence of the body in wireless communications. Thus, the development of phantoms, which are synthetic materials that can emulate accurately the electromagnetic behaviour of different tissues, is mandatory. An accurate dielectric measurement of these phantoms requires using a measurement method with a low uncertainty. The open-ended coaxial technique is the most spread technique but its accuracy is strongly conditioned by the calibration procedure. A typical calibration is performed using an open circuit, a short circuit and water. However, this basic calibration is not the most accurate approach for measuring all kinds of materials. In this paper, an uncertainty analysis of the calibration process of open-ended coaxial characterization systems when a polar liquid is added to the typical calibration is provided. Measurements are performed on electromagnetically well-known liquids in the 0.5 -8.5 GHz band. Results show that adding methanol improves the accuracy in the whole solution domain of the system, mainly when measuring phantoms that mimic high water content tissues, whereas ethanol is more suitable for measuring low water content tissue phantoms. EWG-IoT+EGW-LT
TD(17)03019 Stochastic Geometry Based Coverage Estimation Using Realistic Urban Shadowing Models Charles Wiame, Luc Vandendorpe and Claude Oestges The main contribution of this paper consists in integrating a physically correlated shadowing model of the aggregate interference in a stochastic geometry-based approach. The considered shadowing takes place in a Manhattan urban grid and combines both penetration and corner diffraction when modeling signal transmission from base stations to users. A tractable expression for the network coverage probability is obtained thanks to the framework of stochastic geometry. Our initial results suggest that the diffracted mechanisms are dominant compared to building penetration. DGW2 + DWG3
TD(17)03020 RAN Multihoming and Load-balancing for IoT using LISP Titus BALAN, Marian ALEXANDRU, Florin SANDU, Dan ROBU Redundancy and throughput are main conditions for IoT involving Critical Communications and multimedia streaming (“Internet of Multimedia Things”). One particularity of 5G networks will be the proliferation of different/heterogeneous radio networks (femtocells and offloading capabilities, new energy efficient radios, virtualized RAN) and the possibility for IoT objects to connect with dual or multiple radio access networks. Smart IoT multihoming, and multiple-RAN connectivity management, including automatic air interface selection, optimal weighted load-balancing between interfaces, are challenges for the reliability of future networks. Though 3GPP has some initiatives in this area (LIPA, SIPTO, IFOM, MAPCON, or S1-flex), each solution having some drawbacks, this paper focuses on the possibility of using LISP (Locator Identifier Separation Protocol). Recognized as a serious candidate for 5G standardization and intensively backed-up by a IETF Work Group, LISP offers mobility, multihoming and load balancing that can be applied with no changes in the Internet architecture (directly at the mobile IoT element), and furthermore can be perfectly matched with SDN (Software Defined Networks) that is another highlight of 5G architectures. We present a LISP scenario, illustrating multihoming and load-balancing, with applicability for the case of mobile IoTs (e.g. – “things” part of vehicular or public transportation systems) that are also intensive bandwidth consumers, like the case of connected multimedia “things”. Furthermore an innovative method for LISP addressing based on location, using GNSS/GPS coordinates instead of IP addressed, is presented. EWG-IoT
TD(17)03021 PDOA Emitter Location Using Game Engines 3D Ray based Tools Andres Navarro, William Cruz Simulation results of channel parameters using a Game Engine Ray Based Tool for an outdoor scenario are used in this paper to perform the location of a radio emitter. We present simulation results for the localization of a transmitter with Non-Line of Sight with three receivers using Power Difference of Arrival (PDOA) are used in an outdoor scenario in the 900 MHz band. EWG-LT
TD(17)03022 Experimental Characterization of Joint Scheduling and Routing Algorithm over 6TiSCH Gordana Gardašević, Dragan Vasiljević, Chiara Buratti, Roberto Verdone Recently, the 6TiSCH (IPv6 over the TSCH mode of IEEE 802.15.4e) WG was chartered in order to accelerate the adoption of IPv6 in industrial environments. The newly released Time-Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) mode was introduced as an amendment to the Medium Access Control (MAC) portion of the IEEE802.15.4 standard. TSCH is the emerging standard for industrial automation and process control for Low-power and Lossy Networks (LLNs). This paper presents the preliminary results obtained from the IRACON STSM activity. The main goal of this joint activity is to integrate the research performed at University of Banja Luka, related to the implementation of IoT networks based on the newly proposed “IPv6 over TSCH – 6TiSCH” standard, and the research performed at the University of Bologna, dealing with the definition of novel joint scheduling and routing algorithms for centralised IoT networks. EWG-IoT
TD(17)03023 Internet of Things based Remote Monitoring Platform for Patients with Movement Disorders Lazar Berbakov, Bogdan Pavković, Marina Svetel In the coming years, the concept of Internet of Things is expected to be used in many different industries. One of the fields where Internet of Things offers great promises is healhcare, where its priniciples have already been applied to some extent. The possibility to remotely monitor patient’s vital parameters offers a number of benefits. Doctors can be aware of patient’s condition in real time, that allows them to react in time in the case of emergency. Besides, for patients it is much more comfortable, since they can stay at their homes and at the same time saving them from expensive hospitalization costs. In this paper, we propose an Internet of Things based system for patients with movement disorders. We focus on the application of wireless inertial sensors platform in evaluation of therapy effectiveness for patients with spasmodic torticollis. In particular, we provide some initial results for patients with neck tremor before and after receiving botulinum toxin injections. EWG-LT +EWG-IoT
TD(17)03024 Spreading the Traffic Load in Emergency Ad-Hoc Networks deployed by Drone Mounted Base Stations Margot Deruyck, Jorg Wyckmans, David Plets, Luc Martens, Wout Joseph Today’s wireless networks are very reliable but in emergency scenarios they can quickly become saturated. One way to provide a temporary solution is to mount femtocell base stations on drones. In this study, we investigate if the number of required drones can be reduced by equipping public transport and emergency services vehicles with a femtocell base station. To this end, a network planning tool for the drones has been developed while accounting for the coverage already provided by the base stations installed in public transport and emergency services vehicles. The tool has been applied on a realistic disaster scenario in the city center of Ghent, Belgium. Our results show that the amount of trac of the drone mounted base stations can be reduced. As using emergency services and public transport vehicles enables to reconnect 5% of all users. This limited inuence is due to the less optimal location of the vehicles. Still 3205 drones are required to cover all users. DWG3
TD(17)03025 Spatial In-Body to On-Body Channel Characterization Using an Accurate UWB Phantom Carlos Andreu, Sergio Castelló-Palacios, Concepcion Garcia-Pardo, Alejandro Fornes-Leal, Ana Vallés-Lluch and Narcís Cardona UWB systems have emerged as a possible solution for future wireless in-body communications. However, in-body channel characterization is complex. Animal experimentation is usually restricted. Furthermore, software simulations can be expensive and imply a high computational cost. Synthetic chemical solutions, known as phantoms, can be used to solve this issue. However, achieving a reliable UWB phantom can be challenging since UWB systems use a large bandwidth and the relative permittivity of human tissues are frequency-dependent. In this work, a measurement campaign within 3.1-8.5 GHz by using a new UWB phantom is performed. Currently, this phantom achieves the best known approximation to the permittivity of human muscle in the whole UWB band. Measurements were performed in different spatial positions, in order to investigate also the diversity of the in-body channel in the spatial domain. An experimental in-body to on-body (IB2OB) scenario is considered. From the measurements, a new path loss models is obtained. Besides, the correlation in transmission and reception is computed. Our results show the correlation varies depending on the position of the receiver and transmitter. EWG-IoT+ DWG1
TD(17)03026 Transfer Matrix of Ray Tracing Simulated MIMO Radio Channel Radovan Zentner, Nikola Mataga, Ana Katalinić Mucalo The paper considers application of planar wave assumption for extrapolation of SISO ray tracing data into ray tracing data for arbitrary MIMO antenna geometry. The paper gives expressions for such extrapolation considering issues regarding polarization, arbitrary antennas at both sides of communication channel and frequency. Straightforward formulation is given, that parses impacts of the antenna elements from impact of multipath environment to the final elements of the MIMO transfer matrix. DWG1
TD(17)03027 CASTLE: A user-friendly platform to test, evaluate and develop contemporary wireless communication standards Pol Henarejos, Alexis Dowhuszko, and Ana Pérez-Neira CASTLE is a hybrid testbed composed of both software and hardware components that can be easily configured to obtain standard-compliant implementations of specific network elements in contemporary wireless communication systems. CASTLE focuses on PHY-layer features of different wireless standards, including LTE and LTE Advanced (mobile communications), BGAN (satellite communications), and Li-Fi (Visible Light Communications). CASTLE provides user-friendly interfaces (web-based, C++/Matlab API), enabling an easy preparation of a wide range of experiments without the necessity of installing any dedicated software/hardware in the local computer of the end user. In this document, a general overview of the characteristics of CASTLE is first presented and, then, different illustrative examples of wireless communication experiments are shown. The document concludes with the future directions that the development of CASTLE platform is expected to take, which can be easily aligned with the specific needs of our research partners in the area of Software-Defined Radios. EWG-RA
TD(17)03028 Impact of considering the ITU-R Two Slope Propagation Model in the System Capacity Trade-off for LTE-A HetNets with Small cells Sofia C. Sousa, Fernando J. Velez, Jon Peha This work aims at understanding and evaluating the impact of using different path loss models in the optimization trade-off of small cell (SC) networks, understanding the network coverage areas, the co-channel interference and the underlying system capacity. The choice of a given path loss model enables to calculate the minimum transmitter power needed to transmit from an eNB at a given frequency, in a given environment (outdoor, urban, suburban, rural, indoor), and therefore to provide an acceptable quality of coverage, as well as to implement different frequency reuse schemes in a cellular system. In a congested frequency spectrum, as in LTE-A, the more realistic propagation models are, the more efficient the radio and network planning becomes. In this work we compare four urban path loss models: the urban/vehicular and pedestrian test environment from the ITU-R M. 1255 Report as well as the two slope Micro Urban Line- of-Sight (LoS) and Non-Line-of-Sight (NLoS) from the ITU-R 2135 Report. In these SC scenario, we consider the first three rings of interferers, assuming the exact distance of each interferer to the SC eNodeB, to calculate the carrier-to-interference and carrier-to- interference-plus-noise ratios. We have learned from the analysis that by considering the ITU-R two slope model that considers the existence of a breakpoint in the behaviour of the path loss, for coverage distances, R, up to breakpoint distance divided by reuse pattern, supported cell throughput, Rb-sup, is much lower than expected when traditional single-slope models are assumed. For Rs longer than dBP/K the results for Rb-sup are increasing with R, whereas they are steady or decreasing with R while considering the traditional single-slope propagation models. This increase is due to the existence of a low propagation exponent (slope) in term of coverage and a high slope in terms of interference for dBP/K ≤R≤ dBP. We conclude that the two-slope propagation model yields a significantly lower throughput per square km than a traditional one-slope model if and only if cell radius is small. DWG3
TD(17)03029 Impact of Frequency-Hopping NB-IoT Positioning in 4G and Future 5G Networks José A. del Peral-Rosado, José A. López-Salcedo, and Gonzalo Seco-Granados The positioning support is under study within the narrowband (NB) Internet of things (IoT) standard of Long Term Evolution (LTE) cellular networks. However, the limited signal bandwidth of this technology poses serious difficulties to achieve a position accuracy below 50 meters, which may be required in current 4G and future 5G standards. This work studies the impact of a frequency-hopping (FH) scheme on the LTE positioning reference signal (PRS) for NB-IoT applications. The downlink time-difference of arrival (TDoA) method is used to compute the achievable positioning performance of FH PRS scheme. The simulation results indicate the feasibility to achieve a position accuracy below 50 meters, by covering a system bandwidth of 10 MHz with two consecutive hops. Future work is aimed to evaluate the FH impairments for advanced configuration schemes. EWG-LT
TD(17)03030 Routing based on FRET for in-body nanonetworks Pawel Kulakowski, Kamil Solarczyk, Krzysztof Wojcik Nanocommunications is understood as communications between nanoscale devices that can be located e.g. inside human body for medical purposes. While solutions for point-to-point nanocommunications have been already proposed, networks composed of more than few nanonodes cannot function properly without routing. In this technical document, we focus on the nanocommunications via Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) and discuss how to route signals through in-body nanonetworks. We introduce five new routing mechanisms, based on biological properties of specific molecules. We experimentally validate one of these mechanisms. Finally, we analyze open issues showing the technical challenges for signal transmission and routing in FRET-based nanocommunications. EWG-IoT + EWG-LT
TD(17)03031 Comparison of 5G candidate multi-carrier waveforms in a hardware testbed Kun Chen Hu, Giacomo Pera and Ana Garcia Armada The Fifth Generation of mobile communications (5G) is being standardized in order to reach higher data rates and deploy new services. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has several drawbacks. One of the most important ones is that it has high Out-of-Band Emissions (OBE) which forces us to leave wider guard bands. Reducing so the spectral efficiency. Many new waveforms have been proposed recently. A strong candidate is the Filtered-OFDM (f-OFDM) due to its similarity to the well known OFDM in order to keep the backward compatibility. However, the f-OFDM enhances the Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI). To combat its effect we need to enlarge the Cyclic Prefix (CP) which reduces the frame efficiency. Recently, we have proposed the masked-OFDM which is capable to fulfill the requirements of 5G and avoid the main issues of the proposed candidates. In this paper we are going to show a comparative of OFDM, f-OFDM and masked-OFDM candidates throughout some measurements. EWG-RA
TD(17)03032 Fading Modelling in Maritime Container Terminal Environments Manuel M. Ferreira, Slawomir J. Ambroziak, Filipe D. Cardoso, Jaroslaw Sadowski and Luís M. Correia In this paper a detailed analysis of slow and fast fading effects in container terminal environments is presented, fading distribution parameters are evaluated and an analytical model is proposed. The model is composed of a set of analytical equations allowing to evaluate fading statistical distribution parameters for different system and environments conditions. Globally, it is observed that for slow fading a good fitting is obtained with the Lognormal distribution. Values of (μ_L ) ̅ and (σ_L ) ̅ ranges from -1.95 to -1.18 dB and 2.45 to 3.22 dB, respectively. Fast fading effects are well modelled by Rayleigh, Rice or Nakagami distributions with the later one being the more appropriate. The best fit was obtained with the Nakagami distribution with shape and scale parameters, (μ_N ) ̅ and (Ω_N ) ̅, ranging from 0.79 to 1.23 and 2.52 to 3.58, respectively. DWG1
TD(17)03033 Update on Electrical Balance Duplexer Performance in High Speed Rail Applications Leo Laughlin, Chunqing Zhang, Mark Beach, Kevin Morris, John Haine Our previous TD, TD(16)02038, presented results from electrical balance duplexer (EBD) circuit simulations with dynamic antenna reflection coefficient data measured on board a high speed train. In this TD, we report extensions of our previous work, presenting a comparison of simulation results from two train types: a British Rail High Speed Train (HST) (presented in previous TD), and a British Rail Class 158 train. Simulation results show that passing trains can influence the antenna reflection coefficient and cause variation in the duplex isolation provided by the EBD. Variation was more substantial on board the class 158 trains, due to the narrower separation between passing trains compared to the HST. However in all scenarios, it was noted that re-balancing the EBD at intervals of 5 ms is sufficient to maintain performance. DWG2
TD(17)03034 Measurement-based Massive MIMO Channel Modeling for Outdoor LoS and NLoS Environments Jiajing Chen, Xuefeng Yin, Xuesong Cai, and Stephen Wang In this contribution, a measurement campaign for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel characterization in both line-of-sight (LoS) and non-line-of-sight (NLoS) outdoor environments is introduced. The measurements are conducted at the center frequency of 15 GHz with a bandwidth of 4 GHz. A virtual 40×40 planar antenna array formed by stepping a vertically-polarized bi-conical omni-directional antenna (ODA) along regularly-spaced grids is used in the receiver (Rx). The transmitter (Tx) is equipped with a single ODA. To investigate channel variation over the Rx array, this 1600-element Rx array is split into multiple 7×7 sub-arrays, and a maximumlikelihood parameter estimation algorithm implemented using the space-alternating generalized expectation-maximization (SAGE) principle is applied to extracting multipath components (MPCs) from sub-array outputs. The spatial variability of K-factor, composite channel spreads in delay, azimuth and elevation of arrival are investigated. Based on the estimated MPCs’ parameters, multipath clusters are identified and associated across the array to find the so-called spatial-stationary (SS) clusters. From several hundred of SS-clusters extracted, we establish a stochastic model for their life distances in horizontal and vertical directions, two-dimensional life region (LR), and variation of cluster spreads. These findings are important for massive-MIMO channel modeling in the cases where two-dimensional large-scale arrays are considered DWG1
TD(17)03035 Blockage modelling for evaluation of a 60 GHz Dense Small-Cell Network Performance Mohammed Zahid Aslam, Romain Charbonnier, Yoann Corre, Yves Lostanlen Ray-based and hybrid propagation models are today considered as valuable solutions to fulfill 5G wireless channel modeling requirements. They are a complement or alternative to the stochastic approaches when link-level and system-level simulations deal with millimeter-wave (mmWave), ultra-dense deployment and/or large antenna arrays. The present article proposes an extension of an urban ray-based model for the assessment of a 60-GHz outdoor small-cell network. The multi-paths are predicted from interactions with the static environment, but also with randomly-positioned vehicles and user-bodies. Both the vehicles and the user-body generate ray-path blockage, and (in case of the vehicle) new propagation paths. This sometimes affects the cell selection or beam orientation, and significantly changes the received signal strength and inter-cell interference. In this paper, the blockage effect is first modelled and assessed in simple scenarios before it is introduced into a whole mmWave small-cell network simulation via a stochastic process. The impacts on the signal strength, interference level and the signal-to-interference ratio are evaluated and discussed. DWG1
TD(17)03036 Indoor Propagation Modelling using the Volume Integral Equation I. Kavanagh and C. Brennan New developments in energy efficient wireless communications systems and indoor location and tracking algorithms have created a greater demand for accurate propagation models. In this paper a full wave propagation model based on the volume electric field integral equation (VEFIE) is applied to the problem of indoor propagation modelling. The model is validated against measurements and it is shown to produce very accurate results. A 2D to 3D model is examined as a method to couple the accuracy of the 3D model with the speed of the 2D version. The ability for the frequency domain VEFIE model to compute time domain information is also examined. DWG1
TD(17)03037 A Modified Proportional Fair Radio Resource Management Scheme in Virtual RAN Behnam Rouzbehani, Luís M. Correia, Luísa Caeiro This paper proposes a model for radio resource management in virtualised radio access networks, based on the criterion of proportional fairness, which is also adapted to deal with the situations when there is not enough capacity to serve all the subscribers with an acceptable level of service, so-called the extreme case. A single virtual network operator providing four different class of services, negotiates for required capacity from a centralised entity called Virtual Radio Resource Manager (VRRM). The main goals of VRRM defined in this work are to maximise the utilisation of resources, while maintaining a level of fairness in the allocation of data rate among different services. However, under extreme situations, the algorithm is modified to react differently according to the intensity of offered traffic load. In general, it keeps serving a number of users having the highest Quality of Service (QoS), with the minimum guaranteed data rate, while starts to delay the rest of users performing lowest QoS priority services. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated through realising a practical heterogeneous network scenario and different evaluation metrics. Results show that when there is enough capacity, the algorithm is capable of satisfying the predefined SLAs and keeping fairness, while under extreme situations it delays just enough number of users to free capacity for high QoS priority services. In both cases, the algorithm is capable of maximising the utilisation of resources. DWG3
TD(17)03038 System Level Evaluation of Dynamic Base Station Clustering for Coordinated Multi-Point in Future Cellular Networks Sebastian Scholz A promising concept to increase the efficiency of future cellular networks is to allow cooperation between Base Stations (BSs), which is known under the term Coordinated Multi-Point (CoMP). Various techniques to achieve cooperation are known and partly standardized for Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks. In this paper we focus on Joint Transmission (JT) in the Downlink (DL) direction, because this scheme offers the highest increase of the spectral efficiency. In JT the same data is transmitted from multiple BSs so that the signals interfere constructively at the receivers. A major drawback of CoMP is the increased effort for channel measurement and beamforming or precoding before data transmission. One way to cope with the higher costs of CoMP is to group BSs into CoMP clusters. Cooperation of BSs is then only allowed between BSs belonging to the same cluster. In this paper we propose a new dynamic clustering algorithm, which is then evaluated under a realistic scenario. The scenario includes a traffic model of Web-traffic and changing user locations. The performance of the proposed clustering algorithm is compared with the performance of a traditional operation without any cooperation as well as with two static clustering variants. DWG3
TD(17)03039 Sharing analysis in a live LTE network in the 2.3-2.4 GHz band: regulatory compliance and technical results Doriana Guiducci, Claudia Carciofi, Valeria Petrini, Sergio Pompei, Heikki Kokkinen, Eva Spina, Giuseppe De Sipio, Domenico Massimi, Domenico Spoto, Fabrizio Amerighi, Tommaso Magliocca, Luigi Ardito, Pierre-Jean Muller, Pravir Chawdhry , Massimiliano Gianesin, Seppo Yrjola, Vesa Hartikainen, Lucia Tudose, Fausto Grazioli, Donatella Caggiati, Jesus L. Santos, Vicent F. Guasch, Jose Costa-Requena The Italian Administration, in collaboration with the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission and the support of a consortium of industrial partners, has been first in the world to promote and organize a large scale LSA Pilot, under the technical coordination of Fondazione Ugo Bordoni. The pilot delves deeper on the role that spectrum sharing has for the efficient use of spectrum. The pilot implements a distributed control architecture in compliance with CEPT and ETSI provisions. This contribution is focused on the verification of both the technical feasibility and regulatory compliance of the Licenced Shared Access (LSA) technique applied to a real, live LTE network in the 2.3-2.4 GHz band. Both functional tests and regulatory compliance tests have been performed during the pilot. Measurements results show the sharing based on LSA is feasible to provide mobile broadband service in the 2.3-2.4 GHz band without detriment to incumbent service. DWG3
TD(17)03040 LOG-a-TEC testbed current state and future plans Tomaž Javornik, Igor Ozimek, Andrej Hrovat, Tomaž Šolc, Adnan Bekan, Carolina Fortuna, Matevž Vučnik, Klemen Bregar, Miha Smolnikar, Mihael Mohorčič, Adnan Bekan LOG-a-TEC covers a set of diverse testbeds used for research purposes. It initially started 7 years ago as an outdoor environmental sensing facility. It evolved towards spectrum sensing and cognitive radio as its largest component. It is also covering application areas (verticals) such as photovoltaics, air quality and automotive. More recently, it is evolving towards a comprehensive heterogeneous M2M/MTC/dense IoT setup comprising LR-WPAN and LPWAN technologies. The one thing all setups have in common is that they are based on a version of the VESNA hardware platform which can be used as standalone or combined with other more powerful machines. VESNA is a modular and configurable embedded hardware platform developed by JSI Department of communication systems. EWG-IoT
TD(17)03041 Ray-Tracer Based Channel Characteristics for Distributed Massive MIMO David Löschenbrand, Markus Hofer, Thomas Zemen Massive MIMO systems promise remarkable capacity and spectral efficiency increases over conventional wireless techniques in multi-user setups. In a favorable propagation environment, the large number of base station antennas yields mutually orthogonal channels and therefore spatial separation of the user terminals. Distributing the base station antennas in space offers advantages over collocated antennas such as better channel separation and robustness against large-scale shadowing. We investigate the channel characteristics of a distributed MIMO setup by a ray-tracing simulation of a real-world urban scenario. The setup consists of three linear transmit antenna arrays with 96 antennas each and 129 receiver positions closely spaced on a lambda/2 grid. For favorable propagation evaluation of multi-user channels, a small subset of the receive antennas is considered. For evaluation of the electromagnetic field focusing, all receiver positions on the grid are taken into account what allows assessing the transmit power distribution in space. The paper concludes with remarks concerning opportunities and challenges for distributed antenna setups. DWG1
TD(17)03042 Dynamic Resource Partitioning between Massive Broadband and Machine Type Communication in 5G Networks Kristian Ulshöfer, Sebastian Scholz Machine Type Communication (MTC) traffic generated by the Internet of Things (IoT) will play an important role in 5G networks. Besides that, traditional Massive Broadband (MBB) traffic will also increase in the future. Therefore, 5G networks have to support both traffic types by providing appropriate media access schemes. For MBB, scheduled access is the candidate of choice. In contrast, for MTC traffic it is desirable to reduce the signaling overhead to achieve shortest possible latencies as well as to reduce the energy consumption of IoT devices. Both goals can be achieved by utilizing media access schemes based on Random Access (RA). As MBB and MTC traffic both depend on the same radio resources, a resource partitioning is necessary to avoid collisions between both traffic types. In this paper we propose a dynamic partitioning scheme that utilizes a control loop to manage the amount of reserved radio resources for MTC traffic. The control loop measures the average collision probability of the RA based MTC traffic and estimates the MTC traffic load. This estimate is then used to control the amount of reserved radio resources. The performance of the control loop is evaluated using constant as well as variable MTC traffic load. DWG3
TD(17)03043 Temporal Analysis of Measured LOS Massive MIMO Channels with Mobility Paul Harris, Steffen Malkowsky, Joao Vieira, Fredrik Tufvesson, Wael Boukley Hasan , Liang Liu, Mark Beach , Simon Armour and Ove Edfors The first measured results for massive multipleinput, multiple-output (MIMO) performance in a line-of-sight (LOS) scenario with moderate mobility are presented, with 8 users served by a 100 antenna base Station (BS) at 3:7 GHz. When such a large number of channels dynamically change, the inherent propagation and processing delay has a critical relationship with the rate of change, as the use of outdated channel information can result in severe detection and precoding inaccuracies. For the downlink (DL) in particular, a time division duplex (TDD) configuration synonymous with massive MIMO deployments could mean only the uplink (UL) is usable in extreme cases. Therefore, it is of great interest to investigate the impact of mobility on massive MIMO performance and consider ways to combat the potential limitations. In a mobile scenario with moving cars and pedestrians, the correlation of the MIMO channel vector over time is inspected for vehicles moving up to 29km h. EWG-RA
TD(17)03044 Influence of user’s motion on signal depolarisation in off-body channel Kenan Turbic, Luis M. Correia, Marko Beko This paper considers the depolarisation effect in body area networks, where the influence of user’s dynamics on signal depolarisation in off-body channel is analysed. A simple scenario with the user walking/running in place at a 4 m distance from the off-body antenna is simulated in Matlab, where the motion capture data is used for user’s motion. The cross-polarisation discrimination is analysed for the line-of-sight component, considering different placements of the wearable antenna. The results show high dependence of the depolarisation effect on the on-body antenna placement and dynamics of the motion. The signal depolarisation is very low for the antennas on the chest or waist, it is quite significant for those worn on the wrist or the lower leg. The depolarisation characteristics of the channel are observed to change considerably faster for running than walking motion. EWG-IoT+DWG1
TD(17)03045 Analysis of Experimental Results related to the introduction of LTE in 2300-2400 MHz band in response to the European Commission Doriana Guiducci, Claudia Carciofi, Claudio Cecchetti, Elio Restuccia, Gianmarco Fusco Recent regulatory initiatives of the European Commission focused on developing conditions for the introduction of Wireless Broadband (WBB) in the 2.3 GHz band. Spectrum sharing tecniques have been considered as a new regulatory tool to achieve efficient use of the spectrum assuring the protection of the incumbent users both within the band and in the adjacent bands. In response to the invitation of the European Commission to the Member States to perform specific coexistence analysis in this framework, Fondazione Ugo Bordoni and ISCOM (Istituto Superiore delle Comunicazioni e delle Tecnologie) investigated the possible interference towards WiFi, possibly due to out-of-band emissions from LTE equipment in the adjacent bands. This contribution describes the methodology used to perform such analisys and presents both laboratory results and on field measurements. The results provide the operational constrains that the LTE System has to respect in order to guarantee the protection of the WiFi system. The methodology and the results provide indication also for the development of the future 5G systems for the study of the coexistence between mobile networks and systems that work in unlicensed bands. DWG3
TD(17)03046 Multi-path Components Fluctuation Analysis for 28 GHz Outdoor Radio Channel Measurement Based on Mobile Scenario Mamadou Dialounké Balde, Katsuyuki Haneda, Bernard Uguen For fulfilling ubiquitous throughput demand, the fifth generation (5G) mobile will explore new fre- quency bands typically above 6 GHz and several important technical issues related to the radio channel have to be investigated. Based on radio channel measurement where the Tx is mobile, this TD discusses the multi-path com- ponents (MPCs) fluctuation observed during an outdoor pedestrian measurement campaign performed at 28 GHz. We describe the tracking of the multi-path components over delay and time that used to interpret the observed MPCs contributions. The measurement confirms the high sparsity of the channel impulse response. In the first part of the proposed trajectory, 4 main MPCs are tracked, exhibiting large scale and small scale coherent fluctuations. The small delay variations around each MPC are shown to be strongly correlated (or anti-correlated depending on the geometry), and their spectrum is probably strongly correlated to the specific pedestrian body motion. The presented results should be of interest for deriving spatial consistent channel model for 5G applications at 28GHz. DWG1
TD(17)03047 Link Performance Evaluation and Channel Propagation for mmWave Systems Vaia Kalokidou, Angelos A. Goulianos, Alberto Loaiza Freire, Peter Legg, Timothy Pelham, Andy Lunness, Mark A. Beach, Andrew Nix This paper presents a link performance and channel propagation study for mmWave systems at 60 GHz. The study is based on both mmWave channel sounding and wireless modem measurements. The system performance is characterized by means of common metrics such as packet delivery rate, Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and throughput. Furthermore, the channel measurements are mostly focused on the characterization of the angular spread and the diffused scattering properties of mm-Wave systems. The effect of spatial and polarisation diversity/multiplexing is explored, considering various modulation and coding schemes (MCS). Based on our findings, spatial diversity mostly impacts the quasi/non-LoS locations, whereas the gain from polarization diversity is more significant for horizontal polarized transmitters. Furthermore, a relatively small angular spread is observed when high-directional antennas are employed and the impact of diffused scattering is more severe for rough wall surfaces and relatively small transmitter-receiver separation. Finally, results from both campaigns depict similar SNR trends, thus empowering the validity of our results. EWG-OTA+DWG1
TD(17)03048 User Weighted Probability Algorithm for Heterogeneous C-RAN Interference Mitigation Imad Al-Samman, Reham Almesaeed, Angela Doufexi, Mark Beach, Andrew Nix Deployment of low power base-stations (referred to as HetNet) within cellular systems can improve system capacity, coverage and enhance users experience. However, the inter-tier and intra-tier interference in such systems can significantly impact overall system performance, which make interference and spectral resource management more complex. To build, operate HetNet networks, mobile operators have given significant attention to cloud radio access networks, C-RANs, due to their beneficial features of performance optimization and cost effectiveness. In CRAN cooperated networks, the macro base-stations can operate cooperatively with small base-stations as advanced wireless access network paradigm, where cloud computing is used to fulfill the centralized large-scale cooperative processing. In this paper, such cooperated HetNet and C-RAN architecture is deployed to achieve effective spectral resources and interference management. The study proposes a user weighted probability-based algorithm, which divide the spectrum into shared and dedicated partitions, given that the amount of each partition is calculated efficiently based on the proposed methodology. The algorithm allocates each BS to the appropriate partition in order to meet certain QoS requirements and optimize overall users throughput in each tier. EWG-RA
TD(17)03049 Synthesis of Realistic Bistatic Range Profiles Gerd Sommerkorn, Stephan Häfner, Matthias Röding and Reiner Thomä Due to the increasing spread of small unmanned aircraft systems, a growing demand for radar based localization and identification of small objects is present. This contribution describes a framework for synthesis of realistic bistatic radar range profiles using measured fully polarimetric wideband radar cross-sections, taking into account geometry as well as measurement system aspects. The framework replaces expensive and time consuming field tests and enables the evaluation of radar systems and algorithms. EWG-LT
TD(17)03050 Achievable Rates and Applications of a Textile Massive MIMO Hub Estefanía Crespo Bardera, Ana García Armada and Matilde Sánchez Fernández In the not too distant future, the onset of a wide range of new services is expected. Between their requirements greater data transmission capacity or strict real-time operation can be highlighted. In this paper, we investigate the uplink achievable rates of massive MIMO systems by means of using a wearable hub which brings the benefits of a very large number of antennas directly to the end user. Specifically we compare the achievable rates applying several precoding schemes such as matched filter, zero-forcing (ZF) or optimum precoding based on perfect channel state information (CSIT) when using a large textile antenna array in different simulation scenarios. As a baseline for analysis we also compare with the results achieved in the absence of channel knowledge. Some examples of new services enabled by the high achieved rates are discussed. EWG-RA
TD(17)03051 Current Trends on IoT Computing and Protocol Architectures: Scenarios and Communications Issues Luis Orozco Barbosa and Manuel Castillo-Cara During the past few years, we have been witnessing an exponential growth on the number of wireless devices connected to the Internet. Ranging from wearable to smart cars, telecommunications service providers are being called to offer more and better wireless communications services. To properly respond to the needs of a wide variety of IoT-based applications, researchers and developers are currently exploring the implementation of novel computing paradigms and protocol architectures. In this work, we reviewed the latest developments on computing and protocol architectures. We illustrate, through two use cases, the issues to be addressed on the implementation and configuration of IoT-based solutions and the benefits in terms of quality of services and utilization ratios of the underlying communications resources. EWG-IoT
TD(17)03052 Above 6 GHz Multipath Cross-Polarization Ratio in Indoor and Outdoor Scenarios Aki Karttunen, Jan Järveläinen, Sinh Le Hong Nguyen, and Katsuyuki Haneda In this paper we parametrize novel excess loss-based multipath (MPC) cross-polarization ratio (XPR) model in indoor and outdoor environments. We also study the frequency dependency of the XPR model in the range of 14-83.5 GHz. Based on the results it is concluded that the MPC XPR is not strongly frequency or environment dependent. DWG1
TD(17)03053 Joint Routing and Scheduling with the Backpressure Algorithm and Energy Harvesting Constraints Miguel Calvo-Fullana, Javier Matamoros, Carles Anton-Haro, Alejandro Ribeiro In this paper, we study the problem of jointly routing and scheduling traffic in an energy harvesting network. To this end, we leverage stochastic dual descent methods to propose a generalization of the well-known backpressure algorithm to energy harvesting networks. We name this policy energy harvesting backpressure (EH-BP) and show that it satisfies the fundamental property of backpressure-type algorithms. Namely, if given data arrival rates can be supported by given energy arrival rates and some routing-scheduling policy, they can be supported by the EH-BP policy. Numerical results attest to the properties of the proposed policy. EWG-IoT
TD(17)03054 Antenna Systems for Wireless Capsule Endoscope: Design, Analysis and Experimental Validation Miah Md Suzan, Ahsan Noor Khan, Clemens Icheln and Katsuyuki Haneda In this temporary document (TD), we provide novel small antenna solutions of a wireless capsule endoscopy system operating at 433 MHz ISM band. The in-body capsule transmitter is an UWB conformal loop antenna, whereas the on-body receiver is a monopole antenna with a partial grounding. The in-body antenna occupies the outer-wall of the capsule while keeping a camera sight clear so that the inner space of the capsule is available for the other components of endoscope modules. The capsule antenna has a -10 dB impedance matching from 300 to 875 MHz. The ultra wideband characteristic enables the capsule antenna to overcome the detuning effects due to electronics modules in the capsule and proximity of the capsule to various different tissues in gastrointestinal tracts. The on-body antenna is numerically optimized on single tissue and multi-layer tissue phantoms, followed by in-vitro and ex-vivo measurements for the validations. The on-body antenna shows -10 dB impedance matching from 390 MHz to 500 MHz. Finally, this TD reports numerical and experimental studies of pathloss for radio links between an inbody capsule transmitter and an onbody receiver using our antenna solutions. The pathloss is less than 56 dB regardless of the capsule orientations. EWG-IoT+DWG1
TD(17)03055 Mm-wave Indoor Channel Cluster Analysis by Multipath Component Extraction from Directional Antenna Scanning Minseok Kim, Tatsuki Iwata, Kento Umeki, Jun-ichi Takada, and Shigenobu Sasaki During the past few years, we have been witnessing an exponential growth on the number of wireless devices connected to the Internet. Ranging from wearable to smart cars, telecommunications service providers are being called to offer more and better wireless communications services. To properly respond to the needs of a wide variety of IoT-based applications, researchers and developers are currently exploring the implementation of novel computing paradigms and protocol architectures. In this work, we reviewed the latest developments on computing and protocol architectures. We illustrate, through two use cases, the issues to be addressed on the implementation and configuration of IoT-based solutions and the benefits in terms of quality of services and utilization ratios of the underlying communications resources. DWG1
TD(17)03056 Modeling the Power Angular Profile of Dense Multipath Components using Multiple Clusters Brecht Hanssens, Kentaro Saito, Emmeric Tanghe, Wout Joseph and Jun-ichi Takada In this work, channel sounding data at 11 GHz in an indoor environment were processed and analyzed with multipath estimation frameworks. The Specular Multipath Components (SMC) were estimated with the SAGE algorithm, and the RiMAX algorithm was applied for the estimation of the Dense Multipath Components (DMC) in both the delay and the angular domain. By analyzing the Power Angular Profile (PAP) of the estimated DMC, it becomes apparent that this residual power is not uniformly distributed over the angular domain, and should be modeled by taking into account multiple angular clusters. We therefore propose to extend the maximum likelihood estimation of the angular DMC parameters in the RiMAX algorithm, in order to model the PAP of the DMC with a multimodal Von-Mises distribution. We also validate our proposed method with synthetic channel data, and present some preliminary results with measured channel sounding data. DWG1
TD(17)03057 A Linear Downlink Power Control Algorithm for Cellular Networks Yisroel Mirsky, Yoram Haddad In order to optimize its capacity, a cellular radio system can use a power control algorithm to provide the best overall carrier-to-interference ratio to all of its links. Unfortunately, the optimum algorithm has an impractical exponential complexity of O(2^n) . However, an approach to the problem has been overlooked. By taking advantage of propagation effects it is possible to split up a large problem into overlapping smaller ones. Doing so can achieve virtually identical results to that of the optimum algorithm in O(n) time (having a stable system). Moreover, this proposed algorithm is suitable as a distributed power control algorithm, whereas the optimum algorithm is a centralized one. This makes the proposed algorithm more suitable for today’s cellular network architectures. Furthermore, it is also very easy to parallelize the proposed algorithm over multiple threads and cores offering a great added hardware advantage. In this paper we introduce this algorithm, prove its linear complexity and provide numerical results from simulations. DWG3
TD(17)03058 Simulation Study of the Polarization Behavior for a WTTx Scenario at 28 GHz Gerhard Steinböck, Martin Alm, Tommi Jämsä, and Mattias Gustafsson A simulation study by means of two different commercial ray-tracing tools is presented for the WTTx use case. The study focuses on the polarization behavior at 28 GHz. The simulation results indicate similar behavior in the co-polar domains, however, in the cross polar domain the tools provide significantly different results. Another observation is that the simulation results indicate slightly lower pathloss for the vertical to vertical polarization domain in particular in non-line of sight situations. We conjecture that the Brewster effect, occurring in the horizontal polarization domain on vertical walls, is the main reason for the observed differences between the two major polarization domains. Measurement results are required to confirm our observations in particular as walls in reality are not smooth and diffuse scattering might create a different behavior with respect to polarization. DWG1
TD(17)03059 NFFT-based inhomogeneous plane-wave physical optics dedicated to radio-channel estimation in urban environment Quentin Gueuning, Christophe Craeye, and Claude Oestges In this paper, we present a fast method for the evaluation of the near-field physical optics (PO) radiation integral on arbitrarily-oriented planar domains. It combines a spectral-domain contour deformation technique, used to accelerate the convergence of the numerical quadrature and to circumvent the real-axis free-space singularity of the integrand, and a recently-published extension of the nonequispaced Fast Fourier Transform (NFFT) to Laplace transforms, used to rapidly perform direct and inverse transformations from spatial domain to complex spectral domain. The method is illustrated through an example where we computed the backscattered electrical field from a 100-wavelength plate, positioned in front of an elementary electrical dipole, inside a 100-wavelength planar observation domain. Given a prescribed relative error of 3 digits, the computation time is in a matters of few seconds. DWG1
TD(17)03060 MIMO-FBMC/OQAM using IIC and MIMO-IIC in LTE channel Yahya Harbi, Alister Burr Iterative decoding has been widely used to achieve reliable high data rate transmission for broadband multi-carriers communication systems. However, in Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems with insufficient cyclic prefix (CP), due to the inter-symbol interference (ISI) and inter-carrier interference (ICI) resulting from other transmitted signals, there are significant challenges for efficient receiver design under the effect of the time-variant Long-Term Evolution (LTE) multipath channel. It means that the system performance may be degraded. In this work, iterative interference cancellation (IIC) and MIMO-IIC are proposed using a Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) decoder for MIMO filter bank multicarrier based offset QAM (MIMOFBMC/OQAM) and MIMO-OFDM systems under the effect of a time-variant LTE multipath channel. To eliminate the ICI/ISI interference from the received signal, IIC and MIMO-IIC are used to cancel the undesirable components by using the estimated decoded signal of the current and second stream respectively. The bit error probability is compared with that of the conventional MIMO-OFDM system with insufficient cyclic prefix (CP) under different environments. The results obtained indicate that IIC and MIMO-IIC can effectively mitigate error floors introduced by channel variation and insufficient CP with high bandwidth efficiency DWG2
TD(17)03061 Compute-and-Forward in Cell-Free Massive MIMO: Great Performance with Low Backhaul Load Qinhui Huang, Alister Burr In this paper, we consider the uplink of cell-free massive MIMO systems, where a large number of distributed single antenna access points (APs) serve a much smaller number of users simultaneously via limited backhaul. For the first time, we investigate the performance of compute-and-forward (C&F) in such an ultra dense network with a realistic channel model (including fading, pathloss and shadowing). By utilising the characteristic of pathloss, a low complexity coefficient selection algorithm for C&F is proposed. We also give a greedy AP selection method for message recovery. Additionally, we compare the performance of C&F to some other promising linear strategies for distributed massive MIMO, such as small cells (SC) and maximum ratio combining (MRC). Numerical results reveal that C&F not only reduces the backhaul load, but also significantly increases the system throughput for the symmetric scenario. DWG2
TD(17)03062 BER performance of convolutionally coded BPSK layered hierarchical decode and forward relaying Alister Burr, Cheng Chen We consider a hierarchical wireless network in which two convolutionally coded BPSK sources transmit to a single relay which performs hierarchical decode and forward (HDF), decoding the exclusive OR (XOR) combination of the source data. The sources use the same convolutional code, so that the XOR combination of the coded data is a code sequence of this code, which decodes to the XOR combination of the uncoded data. We derive a tight upper bound on the BER of the decoded hierarchical data, as a function of the channel fade parameters for the source-relay channels. DWG2
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TD(17)03064 Mm-wave Indoor Channel Characterization in V and E Bands Aliou Bamba, Francesco Mani, Raffaele D’Errico This TD presents an indoor channel measurements campaingn in two different bands at 62 GHz and 83 GHz frequency bands. A comparison of propagation characteristics such as the path loss, multipaths clusters’ dispersion properties in the delay and angular domains are provided. DWG1 + EWG-OTA
TD(17)03065 Experimental evaluation of relative calibration in a MISO-TDD system Theoni Magounaki, Florian Kaltenberger, Xiwen Jiang, Cyril Buey, Philippe Ratajczak, Fabien Ferrero We study the transmit time reversal beam- forming in a 8×1 MISO communication system at 2.68GHz. We consider the downlink time reversal transmission where a base station (BS) communicates with one user. A prototype composed by 8 antennas and designed by Orange labs acts as the base station while the user has a single antenna. The reciprocity property is destroyed by the non-symmetric characteristics of the radio frequency (RF) electronic circuitry. We use relative calibration which is based exclusively in signal processing techniques to solve this issue. Utilizing a controlled test setup based on OpenAirInterface (OAI), the ExpressMIMO2 software defined radio boards, as well as a servo controlled rail, we compare the performance of the different prototypes in terms of the received beamforming Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). We also evaluate the performance of an antenna selection scheme at the transmit side as a low-cost low- complexity alternative to capture many of the advantages of multi-antenna systems. The measurements show that the relative calibration method is performing almost optimal and that the complexity can be significantly reduced by using antenna selection. EWG-RA
TD(17)03066 Low-cost or compost? Using DecaWave UWB Transceivers for High-accuracy Multipath-assisted Indoor Positioning Josef Kulmer, Stefan Hinteregger, Bernhard Großwindhager, Michael Rath, Mustafa S. Bakr, Erik Leitinger, Klaus Witrisal Robust indoor positioning and location awareness at a sub-meter accuracy typically require highly accurate radio channel measurements to extract precise time-of-flight measurements. Emerging UWB transponders like the DecaWave DW1000 chip offer to estimate channel impulse responses with reasonably high bandwidth and excellent clock stability, yielding a ranging precision below 10 cm. The competitive pricing of these chips allows scientists and engineers for the first time to exploit the benefits of UWB for indoor positioning without the need for a massive investment into experimental equipment. This work investigates the performance of the DW1000 chip concerning position related information that can be extracted from its channel impulse response measurements. We evaluate the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio of the line-of-sight and reflected multipath components which is a key parameter determining the Cramer-Rao lower bound on the ranging error variance. We propose a novel and highly efficient positioning algorithm, which requires information from a single anchor only. Results demonstrate reliable and robust positioning at an accuracy below 0.5 m. EWG-LT
TD(17)03067 Dominant Eigenmode Gains of Millimeter-Wave Antenna Arrays on a Mobile Phone Katsuyuki Haneda, Mikko Heino and Jan Jarvelainen This temporary document studies a mean gain of an antenna array implemented on a mobile device operating at a millimeter-wave (mm-wave) radio frequency. Similarly to the mean effective gain that is widely used for evaluation of the mean antenna gain of a mobile device in a multipath environment for below-6 GHz radios, this study uses a gain called dominant eigenmode gain (DEG). Assuming that mobile phones at mm-wave range operates with a single baseband unit and analog beamforming like phased arrays, the DEG is defined by a gain of the antenna array corresponding to the strongest eigenmode of the radio channel, in excess to the omni-directional pathloss. Two types of patch antenna arrays implemented on a mobile phone chassis, i.e., uniform linear array (ULA) and distributed array (DA) both operating at 60 GHz, are studied. The DEG evaluated in a small-cell scenario in an airport check-in hall shows that the DA achieves higher median DEG of 3.0 dB than the ULA of −2.0 dB when different orientations of the mobile phone are considered. The ULA achieves the maximum array gain when there is a line-of-sight connection to a base station and no body torso shadowing is involved. However, there are always postures of the mobile phone where the ULA cannot see the line-of-sight because of inherent directionality of the patch antenna on the mobile phone chassis and of body shadowing, leading to as low DEG as −20 dB. On the other hand, the DA has much smaller variation of the DEG across different orientations of the mobile phone, even when the human torso shadowing and user’s finger effects are considered. The study shows robustness of DA for an mm-wave antenna array on a mobile device. EWG-OTA +DWG1
TD(17)03068 UAV-aided B5G Networks Silvia Mignardi, Roberto Verdone This paper addresses the concept of Moving Networks, where base stations move according to traffic and network needs. In particular we study UAV-aided networks showing the potential improvements in terms of network capacity achieved by letting base stations move over an urban area through drones. DWG3
TD(17)03069 User Grouping for Massive MIMO in TDD Wael Boukley Hasan, Paul Harris, Angela Doufexi and Mark Beach This paper proposes a novel user grouping scheme in a single cell for massive MIMO (Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output). The base station (BS) divides the users into multiple groups that are served in different time slots. The proposed algorithm increases the number of users in each group by considering the mutual spatial correlation arising from other users. The newly introduced algorithm is expected to increase the spectral efficiency (SE) in each group and the single cell SE. It also ensures a reliable transmission for all the users in each group by maximizing the minimum signal to interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) based on simple assigning process. The proposed algorithm enhances the performance for several linear decoders and precoders including Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE), Zero-Forcing (ZF) and Matched Filtering (MF). DWG2
TD(17)03070 Scenario Modules and Ray-Tracing Simulations of Millimeter Wave and Terahertz Channels for Smart Rail Mobility Ke Guan, Xue Lin, Danping He, Bo Ai, Zhangdui Zhong, Zhuyan Zhao, Deshan Miao, Hao Guan, Thomas Kuerner Nowadays, rail traffic is expected to evolve into a new era of “smart rail mobility”, which requires a seamless high-data rate wireless connectivity with up to dozens of GHz bandwidth. Such a huge bandwidth requirement motivates the exploration of the underutilized millimeter (mm) wave and Terahertz (THz) bands. In this paper, six scenario modules for mm wave and THz train-to-infrastructure channels are defined and constructed for the first time. All the main objects, such as tracks, stations, crossing bridges, tunnels, cuttings, barriers, pylons, buildings, vegetation, traffic signs, billboards, trains, etc., are modeled according to the typical geometries and materials in reality. Preliminary ray-tracing simulations in the 60 GHz band with 8 GHz bandwidth show that these objects that might not be so impacting on lower frequency channels indeed influence mm wave channel properties, and therefore, they can even play a more important role in the channels at higher frequency bands – THz. The modules presented in this paper are constructed through abstracting commonness of typical rail traffic scenarios. They can be independently used for site-specific verification of new communication regimes. Or, they can be combined in various ways for getting statistics of smart rail mobility in comprehensive rail traffic scenarios. The three-dimensional (3D) models of these six modules are publicly available and freely downloadable for link and system level simulations. DWG1
TD(17)03071 An Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for WSNs Combining Source Routing and Minimum Cost Forwarding Fardin Derogarian, Joao Canas Ferreira, Vitor M. Grade Tavares, Fernando J. Velez Source routing (SR) minimum cost forwarding (MCF) – SRMCF – is a reactive, energy-efficient routing protocol proposed to improve the existent MCF methods utilized in heterogeneous wireless sensor networks (WSN). This paper presents an analytical analysis with experimental support that demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed protocol. SRMCF stems from SR concepts and MCF methods exploited in ad hoc WSNs, where all unicast communications (between sensor nodes and the base station, or vice versa) use minimum cost paths. The protocol utilized in the present work was updated and now also handles link and node failures. Theoretical analysis and simulations show that the final protocol exhibits better throughput and energy consumption than MCF. Memory requirements for the routing table in the base station are also analyzed. Experimental results in a real scenario were obtained for implementations of both protocols, MCF and SRMCF, deployed in a small network of TelosB motes. Results show that SRMCF presents a 33 % higher throughput and 24 % less energy consumption than MCF. Extensive simulations for larger networks of MICAz and TelosB motes confirm the theoretical analysis. The impact of using SRMCF with two different MAC protocols, Berkeley-MAC and Contiki-Mac, is also evaluated by simulation, and the latter setup was also verified experimentally. EWG-IoT
TD(17)03072 MARC: Multiple Access Radio Controller A Convex Optimization Approach to 5G Multi-connectivity Luis Diez, Andrés García-Saavedra, Victor Valls, Xi Li, Xavier Costa-Perez, Ramón Agüero Network densification over space and spectrum is expected to be key to enable the requirements of next generation cellular systems. The pitfall is that radio resource allocation becomes substantially more complex. In this paper we propose a cost-efficient scheduler for OFDM-based heterogeneous systems with multi-connectivity support. Our scheduler makes optimal discrete control actions by solving a sequence of convex problems with no prior knowledge of the users traffic distribution. Differ- ently to prior work, the flexibility of our approach to construct scheduling policies allows us to account for practical constraints of real systemsdelays when turning on/off radio units, discrete sets of available modulations, etc.while supporting a variety of utility-based objectives. EWG-RA
TD(17)03073 Implementation Analysis of Cloud Radio Access Network Architectures in Small Cells Tiago Monteiro, Luis M. Correia, Ricardo Dinis The main objective of this thesis was to analyse the performance of a Cloud Radio Access Network, in an already deployed LTE-A network, by taking advantage of the functional Remote Radio Head and Baseband Unit split, with the centralisation of the processing power in standard data centres. The work consisted of the analysis of the current macro base station location, and of a list of the possible data centres to present a possible C-RAN deployment under different strategies and algorithms that a mobile operator may be interested in. The metrics studied are fronthaul latency, pool capacity in traffic per hour, processing power capacity, and multiplexing gain. A total cost of ownership model is also presented to estimate cost savings possible with the technology. The model is implemented in a computational tool to provide a generic study of any scenario. The results obtained in the central area of Porto prove that C-RAN implementation with 19 pools is possible without introducing latency problems. In this kind of implementation, the operator can combine different traffic profiles, and achieve a multiplexing gain up to 1.31, which can be translated into capacity savings. A cost reduction of 63% in capital investment and 31% in operational expenditures is predicted for a centralised deployment, compared to another green field deployment without centralisation. A futuristic approach was also added to the approach, in order to simulate how massive small cells deployment to handle an 8-time increase in traffic affects results. EWG-RA+DWG3
TD(17)03074 Design of C-RAN Fronthaul for Existing LTENetworks Hugo da Silva, Luis M. Correia, Pompeu Costa C-RAN is a mobile network architecture that enables the share of network resources in a centralised data centre, being cost-effective to the operators. The objective of this thesis was to design and analyse a C-RAN architecture implemented in an existing LTE network. This work consists of a study of the impact of C-RAN and virtualisation in an operator’s network, namely the fronthaul connections and the capacity needed per data centre, taking into account the latency and capacity constraints. It is also analysed the costs associated with the implementation of C-RAN, comparing it with the correspondent decentralised network. A model was implemented taking as an input the positioning of RRHs and possible BBU Pools available, as well as the costs associated with each component. The model presents five types of connection algorithms based on technical issues in order to test different aspects of the network. Finally, an analysis of Minho and Portugal is made using typical values for the various delay and capacity contributions. An approach to the different areas of the scenario is made, classified as dense urban, urban and rural. Results show that Minho and Portugal require respectively 9 and 43 BBU Pools. In what concerns to the fronthaul connections, the outcomes illustrate that a microwave link is not cost effective comparing with fibre. It is also shown that the cost savings, comparing a decentralised with a C-RAN architecture, is around 13%. Due to the dimension of the scenarios, the fronthaul costs reveals to be the most expensive component. EWG-RA+DWG3
TD(17)03075 Balancing the Load in LTE Urban Networks via Inter-Frequency Handovers José Guita, Luis M. Correia, Marco Serrazina Mobile traffic is commonly time variant and often unbalanced, consequently, a sudden increase in traffic within a cell can imbalance the system in such a way that hugely deteriorates network performance. The main purpose of this thesis is to analyse the impact of balancing the load via inter-frequency handovers in an LTE heterogeneous urban network. The effect of varying some parameters regarding user density was studied, as well as combination of different frequency bandwidths and service profile, among others, addressing the 800, 1 800 and 2 600 MHz bands. A model was developed, and implemented in a simulation environment, which takes a certain distribution of users into account and makes the allocation of resources depending on system coverage and available capacity, replicating as close as possible the behaviour of a real network. The analysis on users’ density supports the view that only makes sense to apply load balancing methods at a certain load in the system. Results show high standards of QoS, since, for the same service, users experience similar throughputs within each other. In addition, voice users never suffer handovers due to load balancing (the assigned priority reduces the probability of drop calls). The model shows that, depending on network conditions, the gain in throughput can reach up to 8%. The variation of throughput thresholds has more impact on the percentage of users that perform handovers, and therefore, in the gain of the system. DWG3
TD(17)03076 Urban and O2I loss measurements at 28 GHz Richard Rudd A channel sounder operating at 28 GHz is currently being used to make a series of channel measurements at 28 GHz in urban areas of the UK. The emphasis of the work is on path loss measurements in the context of spectrum sharing and compatibility. This paper describes the equipment used and some initial results. DGW1
TD(17)03077 Experimenting Cognitive Radio Communication with GNU Radio on CorteXlab Tanguy Risset, Leonardo Cardoso, Jean-Marie Gorce, Guillaume Villemaud, Matthieu Imbert, Florin Hutu Abdelbassat Massouri, Othmane Oubejja, Olivier Nicolas While many theoretical and simulation works have already highlighted the potential gain of cognitive radio, several technical issues still have to be evaluated and overcome from an experimental viewpoint. Our team is currently developing a new experimental facility remotely accessible and dedicated to this problem. CorteXlab is developed in the framework of a nationwide French program Future Internet of Things which proposes a federated and competitive infrastructure. The CorteXlab facility offers a 167m2 EM shielded room and integrates a set of 22 USRP from National Instrument, 16 picoSDR nodes from Nutaq. CorteXlab is built on the network architecture developed for the SensLAB testbed and exploits the free and open-source toolkit GNU-radio. All nodes are remotely accessible through a software interface called Minus. EWG-IoT