||Radiowave Propagation Predictions vs. Measurements in a Vegetated Residential Area at 3.5 GHz and 5.8 GHz
||Saul A. Torrico and Roger H. Lang
||The objective of the present paper is to use the extended physical-based Torrico-Bertoni-Lang model to predict and compare against measurements of the propagation loss for point-to-point systems at 3.5 GHz and 5.8 GHz in a vegetated residential area. The vegetated residential area is described as an area outside of the high-rise core of a city, where the heights of the houses and trees are of relative uniform height and are blocking the direct Line-of-Sight (LOS) between an elevated transmitter and multiple elevated receivers. From this point of view, the propagation takes place over the rooftops and/or through the canopy of the trees. The terrain data used was from the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The building data was obtained from the Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data, and the vegetation data used was from the USGS NLCD 2011. Results show the importance of using a physical-based model in conjunction with Geographical Information System (GIS) data, to obtain a close correlation between measurements and predictions.
||Automotive Pattern Reconfigurable Antennas Concealed in a Chassis Cavity
||Gerald Artner, Jerzy Kowalewski, Christoph Mecklenbräuker, Thomas Zwick
||Pattern-reconfigurable antennas for the 2.45GHz ISM band are concealed inside a chassis antenna cavity. Three antennas are designed to reconfigure between near-optimum radiation patterns for urban scenarios by toggling between front/back and left/right radiation. The three antennas follow distinct design principles and have different gain switching capabilities. Antenna performance is evaluated based on gain pattern measurements. It is shown, that the antennas retain their reconfiguration functionality when they are placed in the chassis cavity beneath the vehicle’s roof.
||DWG2, EWG-OTA, EWG-IoT
||Suitability of LTE Random Access Schemes for State Estimation in Smart Electricity Grids
||Achilleas Tsitsimelis, Charalampos Kalalas, Jesus Alonso-Zarate, Carles Anton-Haro
||The realization of advanced electrical grid functionalities, e.g., phasor measurement unit (PMU) information acquisition in wide-area monitoring systems (WAMS), requires a scalable and reliable underlying communication technology. Cellular networks, e.g., LTE/LTE-A systems, appear as a promising option to facilitate the smart grid evolution. However, the effect of LTE communication constraints on power system state estimation (SE) has not been thoroughly addressed in the literature. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the LTE random access channel (RACH) reliability on the transmitted PMU measurements and, consequently, on the SE accuracy. In particular, we assess the SE performance based on the achieved reliability per PMU attained with i) increasing number of contending devices, i.e., smart meters and PMUs, and ii) varying cell coverage range. Numerical results demonstrate that, under different network and traffic configurations, SE accuracy can be significantly affected by the RACH reliability levels. Useful insights can thus be drawn for a reliability-aware design of a power system state estimator in LTE-based WAMS.
||Cost/Revenue Trade-off of Small Cell Networks in the Millimetre Wavebands
||Emanuel Teixeira and Fernando J. Velez
||In this work, we identify and discuss the potentialities of mobile cellular communications in the millimetre wavebands, showing that very high bit/data rates can be supported in small cells with short-range coverage supporting both mobile broadband and machine-type of traffic (e.g., originated from Very High Throughput Wireless Sensor Networks). As in real environments, cellular mobile communications are simultaneously affected by noise and co-channel interference, therefore, it is worth studying the behaviour of the carrier-to-noise-plus-interference ratio with the coverage distance (and the actual distance from users to the eNBs) and the respective analysis of the impact in cellular planning and optimization process. We assess the equivalent supported throughput within cells with a reuse pattern K = 2, assuming, in this preliminary phase, the use of LTE. In terms of cell coverage and the computation of interference, LoS propagation models have been considered at the 28, 38, 60 and 73 GHz frequency bands. From these analytical computations, we conclude that, at 28 GHz, although lower system capacity is achieved for very short coverage distances of the order of 25 m, in comparison to the 73 GHz frequency band, the supported throughput increases for longer coverage ranges, and is clearly more favourable for the lowest frequency band. Owing to the additional attenuation of oxygen, the 60 GHz frequency band is more challenging, as the lowest values of the co-channel interference due to the additional oxygen attenuation originate higher values for the supported throughput, even for lower values of the reuse factor/pattern. Based on these results cost and revenues are studied. Revenues are proportional to the supported throughput and the profit is generally a declining function with cell radii. The highest profit corresponds to the shortest cell radii (up to 80 m), and the best results occur for the 28 GHz band.
||Inter-Operator Dynamic Capacity Sharing for Multi-Tenant Virtualized PON
||Nima Afraz , Amr Elrasad , Hamed Ahmadi and Marco Ruffini
||As the capacity of the optical access networks increases, the case for sharing this capacity amongst multiple operators becomes stronger. In addition to the capital and operating expenditure savings that infrastructure sharing can provide for the operators, providing a higher degree of infrastructure customization will be a strong motivator for operators to participate in the sharing ecosystem. Thanks to the network virtualization technologies, the higher degree of control over the infrastructure can be a motivator for the new virtual operators to join. Given this control, each operator will make decisions for their share of the resources according to their policies. However, when it comes to the infrastructure provider to aggregate all these decisions, ensuring trust becomes vital. It is essential to study the incentives of all the operators and design a sharing mechanism that incentivizes truthfulness. In this paper, we propose such an auction mechanism to monetize the exchange of excess capacity between network operators to increase resource efficiency. The proposed market design is based on a sealed-bid VCG auction for homogeneous multi-item goods with a reserve price. Through market simulations, we show that our proposed market design can achieve all the fundamental economic properties of a market including, truthful value announcing, individual rationality and weak budget balance.
||Comparative of Single-Carrier and Multi-Carrier waveforms combined with Massive-MIMO
||Kun Chen-Hu, Ana Garcia Armada
||The Fifth Generation (5G) of mobile communications will provide a big amount of new services that we have never experienced before. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) are key techniques in the deployment of 5G, due to the fact that they can significantly increase the overall capacity of a multiuser system with low-complexity equalization techniques. In this paper, we compare in terms of signal-to-interference and noise ratio (SINR) the single-carrier (SC) and multi-carrier (MC) schemes combined with the use of massive MIMO. We provide some analytical expressions of the signal model for downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) scenarios and the SINR expressions for each case. Moreover, some simulation results are shown to provide a better understanding and offer some insights on the best combinations.
||On-demand Ultra-Dense Cloud Drone Networks: Opportunities, Challenges, and Benefits
||Navuday Sharma, Dushantha Nalin K. Jayakody, Maurizio Magarini
||The paradigm of previous four generations of cellular technology has led to increase in requirements for high data rate demands from the mobile users, in 5G. To support this, constant densification of communication network was required in this racetrack. Ultra-dense networks (UDN) have been proposed as a promising 5G technology to fulfill these requirements by the efficient and dynamic distribution of the radio resources. However, for implementation of UDN, the mobile operators have to face many challenges such as severe interference resulting in a limited capacity due to the dense deployment of small cells, site location and acquisition for the deployment of base stations, backhauling issues, energy consumption, etc. In this article, in order to alleviate these limitations, we propose a novel idea of replacing this network architecture by an on-demand Ultra Dense Cloud-Drone Network (UDCDN) architecture. The proposed architecture is featured with on-demand quality and substantial flexibility in terms of deployment. This anchor the challenges of traditional UDN settings and offers numerous benefits. Through simulation results of cell coverage, we verify the genuineness of implementing the proposed scheme and offer a new paradigm shift for UDN.
||Paradigm of Realizing Realistic 5G Millimeter-Wave High Speed Train Channels
||Ke Guan, Danping He, Bo Ai, Zhangdui Zhong, Thomas Kuerner
||The upcoming fifth-generation (5G) mobile communication system is expected to support high mobility up to 500 km/h, which is envisioned in particular for high-speed trains. Millimeter wave (mmWave) spectrum is considered as a key enabler for offering the “best experience” to highly mobile users. However, it is not feasible to do extensive mmWave mobile channel measurements on moving high-speed Trains (HST) at a speed up to 500 km/h not only presently, but also in the foreseeable future. Thus, rather than sounding mmWave channel directly with high mobility, this paper presents a viable paradigm for realizing the realistic HST channels at 5G mmWave band, including the scenario definition, EM and scattering property acquisition, significance analysis and scenario reconstruction, ray-tracing simulations, stochastic modeling and realization, verification with ray-tracing simulation, and validation with a reduced set of measurements.
||Vehicle-to-Pedestrian Channel Characterization: Wideband Measurement Campaign and First Results
||Ibrahim Rashdan, Fabian de Ponte Müller, Wei Wang, Martin Schmidhammer and Stephan Sand
||Thousands of fatalities among pedestrians are caused every year by traffic accidents. Vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) communication promises to prevent accidents by enabling collision avoidance application. To develop and test a V2P communications system, accurate knowledge of the propagation channel is essential. However, only limited analysis of V2P channel have been reported in the literature. To fill this gap, the German Aerospace Center conducted an extensive channel sounding measurements campaign in a controlled environment. The measurements were performed at 5.2 GHz with a bandwidth of 120 MHz. In parallel to the channel sounding measurements, performance measurements were carried out using ITS-G5 system at 5.9 GHz and with a bandwidth of 10 MHz. This paper describes the setup and the scenarios for the two measurements. First results on channel evaluation in different scenarios as well as path loss models are presented.
||A New Approach to Cooperative NOMA Using Distributed Space Time Block Coding
||Dushantha Nalin K. Jayakody, Muhammad Nasar Jamal, Syed Ali Hassan, Rabia Khan
||This paper presents a novel approach to cooperative non orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) using distributed space time block coding (STBC) known as STBC-NOMA. In conventional NOMA, the strong users detect the messages of weak users through successive interference cancellation (SIC). In cooperative NOMA, these copies are then forwarded by strong users to weak users at the expense of extra time slots. However, the proposed scheme exploits this feature of cooperation using STBCs to enable cooperation among the users. The STBC NOMA renders less complexity as lesser number of SICs are performed at each user. To this end, we derive the outage probability of the STBC-NOMA scheme which involves finding the distribution of signal-to-interference ratio at the receiving terminals. The numerical results show that STBC-NOMA outperforms conventional NOMA and conventional cooperative NOMA in terms of outage probability and average sum rate.
||Detection and Localization of Non-Cooperative Road Users Based on Propagation Measurements at C-Band
||Martin Schmidhammer, Fabian de Ponte Müller, Stephan Sand, Ibrahim Rashdan
||This paper proposes a novel road surveillance system for vehicular safety applications based on wideband channel characteristics. Using signals from road-side communication infrastructure as illuminators of opportunity non-cooperative road users can be detected and located. In this regard, a channel sounding measurement campaign was performed measuring signal propagation at C-band. To isolate the characteristics of a vehicular propagation channel including deterministic and timevariant scatterers, the measurements were taken in a controlled environment. The exact position and velocity of the involved scatterers, i.e. pedestrians, bicycles, and cars, were constantly tracked. In a first analysis, distinct differences in the received power levels were observed among different road users. Particularly, cars were assigned the highest level. The measurements further indicate that pedestrian targets can be assumed as point scatterers. This assumption was shown to be invalid for cars.
||DWG1 – EWG LT
||Overview of Disaster-Resilient Public Safety Service Provision
||Pedro Alvito Silva, Fernando José Velez and Jon. M. Peha
||One extreme scenario where Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR) communications are extremely important is its operation under or after a natural disaster, or catastrophes, to maintain the minimum connectivity service. Therefore, the design of PPDR communication networks should consider the damages in part or many network elements caused by these extreme natural events. The answer to these needs opens many important and interesting research themes in terms of network resilience, which include the following ones: consider a public safety service provider that uses the infrastructure of the existing LTE Advanced network, another approach is to rebuild the network when such reconstruction is possible, and the third one is to recover functionalities and network connectivity when reconstruction is not possible. On one hand, researchers must analyse the type of catastrophes occurred worldwide, the corresponding impact and associated recovery time. On the other, advanced solutions involve the analysis of a public safety network with replacement parts, analysis of the use of delay-tolerant traffic and narrow-band real-time voice and data communications, investigation of resource prioritization mechanisms to prioritize public safety traffic over commercial traffic, analysis of possible approaches to rebuild the network when reconstruction is not possible as well as possible approaches to establish connectivity when reconstruction is not possible. We propose the use of carrier aggregation (CA) as a framework for the coexistence among commercial operators and a public safety service provider that can own the redundant parts of the PPDR network. The use of CA will permit higher network capacity/service quality, and the implementation of load balancing between carriers through the use of cross-scheduling, maintaining the user experience. A lower frequency band is available for regular business of the mobile operator but the regulator makes upper frequency bands available to them whose benefit is achieved through CA (between the lower and the upper frequency bands).
||An Optimised RRM Approach with Multi-tenant Performance Isolation in Virtual RANs
||Behnam Rouzbehani, Luis M. Correia, Luísa Caeiro
||One of the major potential benefits in wireless network virtualisation is enabling on-demand sharing of resources among different tenants in an isolated manner. This paper aims to propose a model for Radio Resource Management (RRM) among multiple Virtual Network Operators (VNOs) to address all their Service Level Agreements (SLAs) independently, as well as satisfying their customised service requirements to the highest achievable level. Performance isolation is attained by realising a centralised virtualisation platform called Virtual-RRM. This entity is responsible for sharing the total capacity obtained by aggregation of all the radio resource units from different access technologies, according to the service demands of the VNOs and considering service priorities. In order to evaluate model performance, a practical scenario with 3 types of SLA contracts is proposed, while all VNOs are in charge of providing the 4 service classes to their users. Results under different traffic loads and network parameters show that all VNOs’ SLAs are satisfied to the maximum feasible point, 100% of the available capacity is utilised independently from the variation of network parameters, and when possible capacity is shared among the different services according to the concept of proportional fairness.
||SDR-assisted device-to-device communication in radio-congested environments
||Dan Robu, Titus Balan, Alexandra Stanciu, Florin Sandu, Marian Alexandru
||This paper is proposing some models for optimizing the Device-to-Device (D2D) communication in the context of congested environments, by using spectrum sensing. Different levels of decentralization – in computational intelligence, signal processing, power management and a greater percentage of open-source software – are discussed in a business-oriented perspective. A network of low power, inexpensive SDR devices is presented in solutions for implementing the partner discovery and spectrum selection as part of D2D communication in radio-congested urban environments. These practical solutions cover not only cost-effective SDR receivers but also local intelligence, with a spectacular add-on: mobility. In this paper we focus on the spectrum selection phase for the communication between distributed nodes, as the intelligence behind the cognitive radio should follow some models – part of them inspired by social networking concepts – based on sensing elements that publish their current view of the spectrum status. Spectrum sensing and D2D communication – especially in the case where D2D implies the possibility to route information via relay cognitive radio elements – becomes very complex and includes increased computation decision-making. Considering also possible location-based interrogations to Geo-location DataBases (GDB), we have concluded that taking benefit of the Software Defined Network – SDN concept would enhance the spectrum information correlation and decisions. The SDN controller would take over the role of a cognitive engine in order to enable Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA), augmented with Cloud-based machine learning technologies, game theory and other mathematical models optimizations.
||Distributed Spectrum Sensing for Indoor Broadcasting Services using an IoT Platform
||Mauro Fadda, Vlad Popescu, Marian Alexandru, Titus Bălan
||The switch to digital broadcasting technologies has allowed broadcasters an advanced level of personalization and interactivity. The possibility to deliver commercial content to more devices into the same domestic environment, excites both consumers and broadcasting service providers but is hindered by the lack of available RF spectrum. In this context, TV White Spaces (TVWS) are an ideal candidate for deploying interactive indoor broadcasting services, based on firm rules to avoid service disruption for broadcasters, by using joint spectrum sensing techniques. This paper proposes a distributed spectrum sensing method based on an IoT architecture. The architecture comes in support for short-range video broadcasting for delivering commercial contents to several TV devices in an indoor scenario, involving several sensing-enabled objects in a joint manner.
||NarrowBand-IoT: A Survey on Downlink and Uplink Perspectives
||Luca Feltrin, Galini Tsoukaneri, Massimo Condoluci, Chiara Buratti, Toktam Mahmoodi, Mischa Dohler, Roberto Verdone
||NarrowBand-IoT (NB-IoT) is a radio access technology standardized by the 3GPP to support a large set of use cases for massive machine-type communications (mMTC). Compared to human-oriented 4G technologies, NB-IoT has key design features in terms of increased coverage, enhanced power saving, and a reduced set of functionalities. These features allow for connectivity of devices in challenging positions, enabling long battery life and reducing device complexity. This paper provides a detailed overview on NB-IoT. This paper provides a detailed overview on NB-IoT, together with analysis and performance evaluation of the technology. Both uplink direction and downlink are presented including the recent updates on the support of multicast transmissions. The paper summarizes the possible configurations of NB-IoT, discusses the procedures for data transmission and reception and analyzes aspects such as latency and resource occupation. We present a performance evaluation focusing on both uplink and downlink, with the aim to understand the channel occupancy of NB-IoT for different real-life IoT use cases and cell deployments. Further analysis focuses on the impact of various radio access parameters on the capacity of NB-IoT. Finally, results focusing on a new use case for NB-IoT, i.e., firmware update of a group of devices, are presented in form of a comparison between unicast and multicast transmission modes.
||A V2X extension for the Simulator for Mobile Networks (SiMoNe)
||Nils Dreyer, Michael Schweins, Thomas Kürner
||Currently different simulators for Vehicle to Vehicle and Infrastructure (V2X) networks are available modelling the PHY, MAC and application layer of vehicular communication systems. Most common are the discrete-event network simulators NS-3 as well as OMNet++ and its V2X framework ‘Veins’. For complexity reasons, these simulators consider the radio channel by employing stochastic models. Thereby, the actual environment is neglected since these simulators cannot take into account a realistic channel with respect to the environment and surrounding objects as neighboring vehicles. In this paper we introduce a simulation approach that combines the Simulator for Mobile Networks (SiMoNe), developed at the Technical University Braunschweig, with a discreet event based framework for V2X communication. For channel modelling we applied an efficient 3D ray tracer. The combined approach allows a more realistic modelling of applications for 802.11p and LTE-V mode 3 and 4 as well as hybrid systems.
||Design of Coordinated HeNB Deployments
||Rui R. Paulo, Fernando J. Velez and Giuseppe Piro
||Uncoordinated deployment of HeNBs has been widely considered, although in some cases due some economic or physical constraints, a coordinated deployment of the HeNBs could be considered. This work studied a possible case from the infinitude of possible cases of HeNBs deployment. This work considers the deployment of four Enterprise HeNB which serve up to 8 simultaneous users, in a building with a geometry of 5×5 apartments. With a theoretical study on the average SINR, is concluded that the average SINR is the maximum when the apartment sides are 5 m, independent of the transmitter power form the -10 dBm to 20 dBm. The performance evolution of the system focuses on the values obtained for the goodput, Packet Loss Ratio (PLR) and delay for the Proportional Fair, Frame Level Scheduler and Exponential Rule schedulers with users using a video and the best effort flows at the same time. For the video flows the maximum average goodput was obtained with the FLS scheduler, but when the PLR is taken into account the EXPRule present a slight advantage. In the case of the BE flows, the EXPRule present the best performance. But the main deduction is that possible to operate a system like the presented in the studied scenario without setting the transmitter power of the HeNBs on the maximum transmitter power, which could be a step to achieve a greener system.
||Comparative analysis of downlink signal levels emitted by GSM 900, GSM 1800, UMTS, and LTE base stations and evaluation of daily personal-exposure induced by wireless operating networks
||Rreze Halili, Luan Ahma, Enver Hamiti, Mimoza Ibrani
||Determination of exposure levels is considered as one of the parameters of planning and optimization of green cellular networks. While moving towards 5G technology and standardization, the results of comparative exposure levels induced by 2G, 3G and 4G networks are of interest. We present the results of in-situ determination of downlink signal levels emitted by GSM 900, GSM 1800, UMTS, and LTE networks in urban areas. The measurements are conducted with calibrated spectrum analyzer NARDA SRM 3006 at outdoor and indoor spots, including LOS and NLOS positions. The highest measured value is 2.82 V/m registered in outdoor LOS position by GSM 900. The results of comparative research highlight GSM 900 as the biggest contributor to the overall cellular systems downlink signal level, followed by UMTS, GSM 1800 and LTE. Additionally, we present the results for personal exposure induced by wireless operating networks in typical daily environments, derived by analysis of 1,905,162 samples of electric ﬁeld strength, taken at a 5-s sampling interval. These measurements were collected with calibrated isotropic three-axial electric ﬁeld probe personal exposure meters, operating in the frequency range 88-5850 MHz, and were processed using the robust regression on order statistics method. The determination of mean values of electric ﬁeld strength per wireless technology for: home, ofﬁce, transport, outdoor, and leisure environments. The highest value of total electric ﬁeld strength exposure is obtained on public transport followed by coffee shops and outdoor environments, whereas the lowest values are captured in home and ofﬁce environments. Obtained results are compared with the ICNIRP reference levels as well as with down-link signal levels emitted by cellular systems in other countries.
||Modelling of Propagation Wireless Channels Using Propagation Graphs
||Ramoni Adeogun and Troels Pedersen
||Simple and accurate channel models are required to evaluate the performance of multi-antenna systems with polarized antenna arrays. This paper presents a graph based model for polarized multi-antenna wireless channels by incorporating polarization diversity into the classical propagation graph based model. In addition to classical propagation effects such as attenuation, delay and phase shifts in non-polarized channel models, the proposed model incorporated antenna and scatterer based depolarization effects including polarization coupling and polarimetric responses. An illustration of the procedure for generating the transfer function and impulse response from the model is given for dual polarized channels. Simulation results show that the power delay profile exhibit exponential decay with almost equal decay rate across the co- and cross-polar channels. Our results also show that antenna orientation, relative antenna height and depolarization affect the power-delay properties of the channel.
||An Optimisation Technique for Mobility Load Balancing in Dense Small Cells
||Karim M. Nasr and Klaus Moessner
||A new approach for mobility load balancing and user association in dense small cell deployments is presented. This Self Organizing Network (SON) technique relies on Knapsack Optimisation to evenly distribute users across participating cells subject to constraints. Example use cases of dense small cells for future 5G networks are investigated. It is shown that the new technique achieves substantial improvements (better than three times reduction) in blocking ratios for the studied use cases.
||Window and Wall Penetration Loss On-site Measurements with Three Methods
||Aki Karttunen, Sinh Le Hong Nguyen, Pasi Koivumäki, Katsuyuki Haneda, Tuomo Hentilä, Ari Asp, Arto Hujanen, Ismo Huhtinen, Matti Somersalo, Seppo Horsmanheimo, and Jouko Aurinsalo
||Three methods suitable for on-site window and wall penetration loss measurements are presented and compared. The methods are (i) outdoor-to-indoor channel measurement, (ii) far-field penetration loss measurement, and (iii) near-field penetration loss measurement. It is shown that the different methods give similar penetration loss results. The measured window exhibits bandstop characteristics due to the internal reflections in the periodic structure of the triple-layer window. The brick wall has penetration loss that increases as a function of the frequency.
||Large-scale Parameter Estimation in Propagation Channels with Insufficient Measurement Dynamic Range
||Aki Karttunen, Pasi Koivumäki, Sinh Le Hong Nguyen, and Katsuyuki Haneda
||In this temporary document (TD), we examine large-scale parameters (LSPs) in the case when the measurement dynamic range is too poor to derive the LSPs for all the measurement locations. Conventionally the LSPs are derived with, e.g., 20 dB dynamic range from the strongest detected multipath component (MPC), but such a measurement dynamic range cannot be guaranteed in measurement scenarios with large path loss and shadow fading variance. We will show that the LSPs, specifically path loss (PL), shadow fading (SF), delay spread (DS), and angular spread (AS), can be considered as censored data, meaning that all data above or below a certain range are counted, but not measured. In practice, this means that either a maximum or a minimum value (or both) can be defined for the LSPs in measurement locations with poor dynamic range. Therefore, the measurement locations with insufficient measurement dynamic range can be taken into account in deriving the LSP statistics using maximum likelihood estimation rather than omitted as “outage”. Outdoor-to-indoor (O2I) measurements at the 14-14.5 GHz range are used as an example.
||NB-IoT and LoRA Connectivity Analysis for M2M/IoT Smart Grids Applications
||Samuela Persia, Claudia Carciofi, Manuel Faccioli
||The evolution of the new M2M/IoT paradigm suggests new applications in several fields. However, the unique characteristics of M2M communications pose different challenges in terms of connectivity and capacity with respect to the conventional telecommunications networks. In particular, the harmful locations where IoT devices could be deployed and the massive number of the devices to be connected require a different approach with respect the traditional wireless communication. In this paper, we analyzed two different technologies expressly devoted the M2M communication: the Long Term Evolution (LTE) based solution, NB-IoT (Narrow Band – Internet of Things), and the LPWAN (Low Power Wide Area Network) based solution, LoRa (Low Range). The analysis has been provided taking into account different propagation scenarios and geographical information of the real MNOs (Mobile Network Operators) sites operating in the territory under test. The aim of this work is to check wireless access method of both cellular and proprietary technologies for the novel IoT Smart Grid applications requirements.
||Nanocommunication using FRET signals for in-body medical systems
||Jakub Kmiecik, Pawel Kulakowski, Krzysztof Wojcik, Andrzej Jajszczyk
||The paper is concerned with an in-body system gathering data for telemedical purposes. It is focused on communication between the following two components of the system: liposomes gathering the data inside human veins and a detector collecting the data from liposomes. Foerster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is considered as a mechanism for communication between the system components. The usage of bioluminescent molecules as an energy source for generating FRET signals is suggested and the performance evaluation of this approach is given. FRET transmission may be initiated without an aid of an external laser, which is crucial in case of communication taking place inside of human body. It is also shown how to solve the problem of FRET signals recording. The usage of channelrhodopsin molecules, able to receive FRET signals and convert them into voltage, is proposed. The communication system is modelled with molecular structures and spectral characteristics of the proposed molecules and further validated by using Monte Carlo computer simulations, calculating the data throughput and the bit error rate. The presented system can be seen as a bridge between nanocommunications and wireless body area networks.
||Distributed Scheduling in 6TiSCH Networks based on 6top Protocol
||Gordana Gardašević, Dragan Vasiljević
||Efficient scheduling mechanisms in 6TiSCH networks are of a vital importance for industrial low-power wireless mesh network applications. One of possible strategies for providing desired performances is based on 6top (6TiSCH Operation Sublayer) distributed scheduling. 6top is the next higher layer to the IEEE 802.15.4 TSCH medium access control layer. 6top Protocol (6P) is part of the 6top and allows neighbor nodes to “negotiate” the location of the cells to add, delete, or relocate in their TSCH schedule. In this paper, the performances of 6top scheduling are demonstrated by using the 6TiSCH simulator.
||Spatially Consistent LOS/NLOS Model for Time-Varying MIMO Channels
||Rimvydas Aleksiejunas, Albert Cesiul, Kestutis Svirskas
||A cluster scattering MIMO channel model is proposed combining advantages of map-based models such as spatial consistency as well as stochastic properties of more general statistical models. The model is constructed by generating clusters based on LOS/NLOS visibility regions and generating stochastic MIMO channel coefficients according to temporal, spatial and spectral correlations between large and small scale fading parameters. Time and frequency sampled version of the channel coefficients can be used as computationally effective discrete model for time-varying MIMO channels. The application of the model is illustrated by Manhattan grid like urban scenario.
||Comparative Analysis of Ray Tracing and Volume Electric Field Integral Equation for Indoor Propagation
||Xue Lin, Bo Ai, Ke Guan, Danping He, Ian Kavanagh, Conor Brennan, and Zhangdui Zhong
||Ray tracing (RT) and volume electric field integral equation (VEFIE) are two deterministic propagation models that can provide the highly accurate prediction for network planning, optimization and localization. In this study, a measurement-calibrated RT and various VEFIE models (corrected 2D VEFIE, 3D VEFIE, and their heuristic correction) are compared in terms of accuracy and efficiency in the same indoor environment. To begin with, both the RT and the VEFIE methods are briefly introduced. Then, the RT simulation configuration and its calibration and validation based on measurements are presented. Finally, the comparative analysis implies that the calibrated RT can achieve the highest accuracy; the corrected 2D VEFIE can implement the calculation with the shortest time; the heuristic correction well utilizes the efficiency of the 2D VEFIE and the accuracy of the 3D VEFIE. This study orientates the RT and various VEFIE models, and therefore, it provides the basis to select the most suitable tools for indoor channel propagation modeling subject to certain accuracy requirements and computational ability.
||Wireless Urban Propagation Measurements at 2.44, 5.8, 14.8 & 58.68 GHz
||Jonas Medbo, Dennis Sundman, Henrik Asplund, Niklas Jaldén, Satyam Dwivedi
||This paper summarizes extensive wireless propagation measurements in an urban environment in Stockholm, Sweden. Effort has been put on ensuring comparability for all the different frequencies over the full range 2-60 GHz. Indoor office, outdoor-to-indoor, and outdoor street canyon scenario are investigated. Significant increase of propagation path loss with increasing frequency is observed for all these scenarios.
||Wireless Transmission in Ventilation (HVAC) Ducts for the Internet of Things and Smarter Buildings: Proof of Concept and Specific Antenna Design
||G. Villemaud, F. Hutu, P. Belloche, F. Kninech
||We present here a preliminary study of wireless transmissions using the ventilation metallic ducts as waveguides. Starting from the waveguide theory, we deeply study in simulation the actual attenuation encountered by radiowaves in such a specific medium. This kind of wireless link appears to be really efficient, and therefore highly promising to implement Internet of Things (IoT) in old buildings to make them smarter. This paper also expresses a very simple empirical model in order to ease dimensioning a wireless network in such conditions and a specific antenna design enabling both good performance and high robustness to the influence of the environment.
||A Body-Shadowing Model for Off-Body and Body-to-Body Communications
||Kenan Turbic, Slawomir J. Ambroziak, Luis M. Correia
||This paper presents a simple model for body-shadowing in off-body and body-to-body channels. The model is based on a body shadowing pattern associated with the on-body antenna, represented by a cosine function whose amplitude parameter is calculated from measurements. This parameter, i.e the maximum body-shadowing loss, is found to be linearly dependent on distance. The model was evaluated against a set of off-body channel measurements at 2.45 GHz in an indoor office environment, showing a good fit. The coefficient of determination obtained for the linear model of the maximum body-shadowing loss is greater than 0.6 in all considered scenarios, while being higher than 0.8 for the ones with a static user.
||IRACON Reference Scenarios
||S. Ruiz, H. Ahmadi, L.M. Caeiro, N.Cardona, L.M.Correia, M.Deruyck, L.F.Diez, M. Garcia-Lozano, T. Javornik, S. Luna, V. Petrini, D.M. Rose
||IRACON WG3 members are working in dynamics and complex scenarios oriented to Beyond 4G and 5G, advocating new techniques and solutions, assessing their performance for certain scenarios and use cases. It is of high interest for IRACON community to make available a flexible common framework that allows the deployment of rather complex networks which can be exploited to analyse a wide range of management techniques, solutions and, even, novel architectural approaches. The selected scenarios have been validated by the authors through their research activity being the next step the possibility for other IRACON members to use them for their own research. This TD summarizes the main characteristics of the scenarios selected so far based on realistic as well as synthetic approaches useful for B4G and 5G networks.
||Localisation and Massive MIMO: Opportunities and Benefits
||Accurate geolocation in urban environments is a challenge due to the urban canyon. GNSS based systems (e.g. GPS) simply fail, in such environments, when the target is not able to get a clear line of sight to the generally required minimum of 3 satellites. Mobile network based schemes offer an alternative particularly when multiple antennas are deployed, allowing improved estimation accuracy for direction of arrival (DOA). Massive MIMO presents an opportunity because of the possibility to use inexpensive, low-power and low-precision components, with greatly reduced complexity/cost. It also offers increased degrees of freedom when DOA estimation is done using different subsets of antennas with the best result getting selected according to prescribed confidence criterion. On the Massive MIMO system itself, significant system benefits can be derived from this approach, like, new handover strategies and pilot allocation schemes. This paper explores the potential approaches that can be taken to achieve better localisation accuracy using Massive MIMO. Proposals on how massive MIMO and mmWave systems may benefit from the inherent localisation, are discussed, and an insight into current and related research is presented.
||Robust Broadband Maritime Communications: Theoretical and Experimental Validation
||Denis Couillard, Ghassan Dahman, Marie-Eve GrandMaison, Gwenael Poitau, and Francois Gagnon
||Atmospheric ducts, which are caused by the rapid decrease in the refractive index of the lower atmosphere, have been recognized as the dominant propagation mechanism for long range maritime links. Recent advances in radio technology are making reliable high-capacity overwater links a reality. A raytracing simulation model was developed to obtain reliable prediction of maritime link performance beyond 30 km for realistic conditions. A series of static and mobile long range maritime MIMO links were tested with representative antenna heights at 1.39 GHz (Band 3 or L-Band) and 4.5 GHz (Band 4 or C-Band) have been performed during periods with various levels of ducting activities e.g., sunset and sunrise times. Measured link performance and observed ducting occurrences are compared to predictions to validate the model ability to accurately predict and explain link performance for various ducting conditions. The test results agree with the model predictions and illustrate the various Received Signal Level (RSL) degradation, enhancement and fluctuations that can be expected in long range maritime links below 6 GHz. We also report on short-term (few to several minutes) fluctuations of the received signal level at the two measurement frequency bands during high ducting activity periods. Measurements and theoretical analysis of the effect of ducting on the quality of maritime communication links indicate that both reflection induced and ducting induced disruptions are different and more frequent in higher frequency bands. This work opens interesting perspectives on providing more robust and more predictable communications in the presence of ducting.
||Emulating Dynamic Radio Channels for Radiated Testing of Massive MIMO Devices
||Pekka Kyösti, Lassi Hentilä, Jukka Kyröläinen, Fengchun Zhang, Wei Fan, Matti Latva-aho
||This paper discusses a multi-probe anechoic chamber setup, capable of reconstructing non-stationary radio propagation environments for testing of millimetre wave and massive Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output devices. The test setup is aimed for evaluation of end to end performance of devices, including hybrid beamforming operations of antenna arrays and base band processing, in highly time variant channel conditions. In this work we present simulated comparison of an ideal reference radio channel model and corresponding model implemented with limited resources of multi-probe anechoic chamber components. We give a qualitative analysis of the results with non-line of sight channel models, without quantitative evaluation. The example device under test is a 8×8 planar array with half wavelength inter-element spacing.
||Wireless channel simulations using geometrical models extrated from point clouds
||Juan Pascual-García, José-María Molina García-Pardo, María-Teresa Martínez-Inglés, José-Víctor Rodríguez and Leandro Juan-Llácer
||In recent years, point clouds obtained from laser scanning devices have been used in the simulation of the wireless channel; these point clouds represent with high accuracy the environment leading to an improvement in the channel analysis. However, the estimation of specular replicas using point clouds is a difficult task. In this work flat rectangular surfaces of the environment elements are extracted from a point cloud producing a very complete geometrical model. This model is used in a ray tracing tool that easily estimates the specular components whereas the point cloud is used to estimate the diffuse components. As the results will show, this approach is accurate since all needed replicas are present in the simulation
||The Development of the ITU-R Terrestrial Clutter Loss Model
||J. Medbo, C. Larsson, B-E. Olsson, F. S. Chaves, H. C. Nguyen, I. Rodriguez, T. B. Sørensen, I. Z. Kovács, P. Mogensen5, K.-T. Lee, J. Woo, M. Sasaki, W. Yamada
||ITU-R has recently published a new Recommendation giving methods for the estimation of clutter loss at frequencies between 30 MHz and 100 GHz. This paper provides an overview of the methods. In particular, the derivation and form of the new clutter model for terrestrial paths is described in detail and remaining work is pointed out.
||Cooperative Access Networks: Optimum Fronthaul Quantization in Distributed Massive MIMO and Cloud RAN
||Alister Burr, Manijeh Bashar and Dick Maryopi
||We consider cooperative radio access network architectures, especially distributed massive MIMO and Cloud RAN, considering their similarities and differences. We address in particular the major challenge posed to both by the implementation of a high capacity fronthaul network to link the distributed access points to the central processing unit, and consider the effect on uplink performance of quantization of received signals in order to limit fronthaul load. We use the Bussgang decomposition along with a new approach to MMSE estimation of both channel and data to provide the basis of our analysis.
||On the Impact of Radio Channel over REM-Aware UAV-Aided Mobile Networks
||Silvia Mignardi, Chiara Buratti, Roberto Verdone
||This paper studies the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as support to today’s cellular networks. UAVs operate like Small Cells moving according to traffic and service needs; coverage and capacity become adaptive to time-spatial variations of the user demand. The Unmanned Aerial Base Station (UABS) is requested to fly over areas in which users requesting service are not covered by the nearest Terrestrial Base Station (TBS) in real-time. In our scenario users ask for a video streaming service, having stringent requirements in downlink throughput but a latency of tens of seconds. We are considering a UAV trajectory design that accounts for the actual position of unsatisfied users grouped in clusters. The trajectory is computed by a central controller as a function of the distance of the UABS from the next cluster, user density, energy consumed by drone and spatial fairness. In this paper we analyze the impact of having at disposal precise Radio Environment Map (REM) information and different antenna systems mounted on the drone. Since these techniques impact the link between the UABS and ground users, network throughput and coverage range are affected in different ways for each solution. Simulation results will show for each case the performance achieved by the system.
||A Fair Computational Resource Management Strategy in C-RAN
||Mojgan Barahman, Luis M. Correia and Lúcio S. Ferreira
||A resource management strategy is presented aiming at managing the computational resources of a C-RAN BBU-pool. The goal is the efficient use of computational resources, while striking an optimum balance amongst all the BBUs in high demand conditions that lead to computational resource leakage. To this end, the BBUs required computational resources are estimated on the basis of a time frame, based on user processing and type of running services. A game theory approach of bargaining is employed in order to achieve the optimal allocation policy, for the BBU-pool computational resource management. An individual BBU is assigned with a bargaining power based on the number of its user processing and on the services priority level. The Generalized Nash Bargaining Solution is applied as a strategy to distribute computational resources in a fair manner. In order to evaluate model efficiency, a simple scenario is considered. Simulation results confirm that the model maximizes proportional fairness and allocates computational resources according to the BBUs bargaining power. Moreover, numerical results show that 100% of the available computational capacity is used in case of need.
||Arbitrary rotation of the antenna in global coordinates for geometry based radio channel models
||Radovan Zentner, Nikola Mataga, Ana Katalinić
||For generalized geometry based radio channel model it is essential to enable possibility of applying arbitrary antenna elements and arrays at both ends of the channel. This document considers implications of this necessity, tackling the issue of arbitrary rotated antenna. Antenna radiation pattern is usually obtained from calculations and/or measurements and for aforementioned application these data should include both amplitude and phase of the antenna pattern at a given frequency. Moreover, these data are given in local antenna coordinate system that producer of the data considers most appropriate, taking into account geometry and radiation properties of the antenna. For implementation of rotation of such radiation pattern a stage must be set: firstly, format of initial (complex and polarimetric) radiation pattern of the antenna must be specified; secondly, positioning such radiation pattern into global coordinate system must be defined, as well as all possible 3D rotations that would be taken into account; thirdly, output format (again complex and polarimetric) radiation pattern of the antenna must be defined. Beside these three specification points, the algorithm that performs radiation pattern transformation according to these specifications must be developed. This paper presents such an algorithm, adapted for a certain set of aforementioned specifications, a set that best addresses issues important for a geometry based deterministic reference channel model.
||Airborne Wireless Network Infrastructure for Affordable Broadband, Emergence Services and Monitoring of Radio Astronomy
||L Mfupe, K Katzis
||Access to broadband connectivity is an important means to spur a sustainable economic growth of any nation. According to a report by World Bank 10% increase of Fixed broadband penetration can contribute up to 1.5% increase of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in developing economies. However, it is is estimated that 53% of South African households are without any means of broadband connectivity. The majority of the unserved and under-served households consist of 10% of the South African population, living in 90% of the land, in sparsely populated hard-to-reach rural, low-income communities. The traditional approaches of providing broadband connectivity such as Fiber-optic cables, Cellular networks, Wi-Fi or communication Satellites are not feasible to address the challenges in the hard-to-reach low-income rural areas due to: (1) the deployment cost of Fibre-optic cables infrastructure, (2) the high deployment cost and small coverage of Cellular networks, (3) the signal loss of terrestrial-based systems due to obstruction by natural and man-made structures, (4) the high deployment cost and maintenance of Satellite systems . Airborne Wireless Network Infrastructure (AWNI) is a telecommunication system onboard a balloon (tethered or untethered), airship or a plane (manned or unmanned), which may operate in low, medium or high altitude, typically from 1 km to 22km altitude. Such platforms have the ability to be deployed within a short period of time and have the potential to provide line-of-sight (LoS) terrestrial wireless coverage of 40 square km to 300 square km. The main purpose of this TD is to investigate how AWNI could overcome the aforementioned challenges to extend the capacity and coverage of national wireless ICT infrastructure to the hard-to-reach communities to support applications in the 4th industrial revolution such as smart agriculture. Furthermore, this TD is to investigate how AWNI could be useful to the Disaster Management (DM) services as an alternative means of communication when terrestrial-based ICT infrastructure have been destroyed by natural disasters. Moreover, it will be explored whether AWNI can be used for passive monitoring of rogue transmitters in the radio quiet zones (RQZs) particularly in the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project areas.
||DWG1, DWG2, DWG3, EWG-OTA,EWG-IoT,EWG-RA EWG-LT
||On Multilink Shadowing Effects in Measured Urban V2V Channels
||Mikael G. Nilsson, Carl Gustafson, Taimoor Abbas, and FredrikTufvesson
||Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication enables direct communication between vehicles, even when being out-of-sight due to diffraction and reflection of the radio signal. The out-of-sight, or shadowed, situation can be either due to other vehicles, causing obstructed line-of-sight (OLOS) or due to buildings, causing non line-of-sight (NLOS). The NLOS scenario has previously been modelled by Mangel et al., but that pathloss model has its limitations, e.g., the model is not reciprocal and the influence of other vehicles are not included. In a vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) it is essential to model joint shadowing effects. In this paper we present the first steps towards an alternative reciprocal NLOS pathloss model based on analysis from measured V2V communication channels at 5.9 GHz between six vehicles in an urban environment.
||IP Session Continuity in Heterogeneous Mobile Networks Using Software Defined Networking
||Petar D. Bojovic, Zivko Bojovic, Dragana Bajic, Vojin Senk
||Full interoperability and integra-tion of heterogeneous networks is necessary for communication ses-sion continuity. Software defined networking (SDN) with virtual IP addresses solves the problem. Implementing a homogeneous SDN is expensive, given the enormous investments in existing networks. To solve this second problem, we deploy the least set of SDN fea-tures to provide full L3 mobility. We use a common controller to manage the IP address translations.
||On Simple Scattering and Diffraction Models for Channel Model Predictions
||High capacity wireless communications for long range mobile networking at VHF and UHF impose new challenges for mission critical applications. One of these challenges is to find a suitable propagation model able to predict as accurately as possible the propagation channel to assess the performance of wide-band wireless systems. The propagation channel is described by its impulse response, i.e., a set of multipath components due to radio propagation. An investigation of so-called point cloud propagation models based on the detailed topographical data available in Switzerland is conducted. The results of the point cloud predictions are compared to wide band impulse response measurements. A challenge is to predict accurately the multipath components. The preliminary results aim at illustrating the potentials and limitations of very simple scattering and diffraction models used for point cloud based impulse response predictions. It remains to be seen if these simple models scale up to higher carrier frequencies and smaller areas of interest for 5G.
||Implementation of Ray Launching Algorithm for Fast Propagation Prediction
||E. M. Vitucci, J. S. Lu, V. Degli-Esposti, F. Fuschini, M. Barbiroli, J. Blaha, H. L. Bertoni
||“A novel, fully discrete Ray Launching field prediction algorithm that takes advantage of environment preprocessing to efficiently trace rays undergoing both specular and diffuse interactions is presented. The algorithm, is “environment driven” because rays are traced from the ray source according to the presence and distribution of obstacles in the surrounding space, therefore adapting ray density to the characteristics of the environment. The environment is discretized into simple regular shapes to facilitate faster geometric computations, allow for visibility preprocessing and allow for the algorithm to be parallelized in a straightforward way. These innovative features when combined together and implemented on a NVIDIA Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) are shown to speed-up computation up to four orders of magnitude compared to conventional algorithms, while retaining a similar accuracy level. The speed-up and prediction accuracy achieved in several cases is presented in comparison to a pre-existing ray-based model and RFcoverage measurements.
||Channel modelling and spatial performance requirements for 3GPP mmWave New Radio
||Moray Rumney, Pekka Kyosti, Lassi Hentila
||The work in 3GPP to define channel models for the development of the 5G New radio (NR) air interface is ongoing. 3GPP published the Study on channel model for frequencies from 0.5 to 100 GHz  in March 2017 providing a framework for system level and link level channel models. The system level models are being used for system level simulations while link level models are being defined for the development of requirements and test cases for UE and BS. The process of turning the framework in  into usable link level channel models has several steps which include scaling by carrier frequency, channel bandwidth, truncation by power, angular and delay spread scaling as well as the application of a BS transmit (Tx) antenna pattern assumption to spatially filter the model. This paper outlines the status of this work and an early look at the kind of link level channel models likely to be used for UE and BS conformance testing.
||DWG1, EWG-OTA, DWG2, EWG-RA
||Ultra low power wake-up radio with neuro-based detector and stochastic resonance
||Anne Savard, Laurent Clavier, Christophe Loyez, Francois Danneville, Alain Cappy
||Inspired by our brain, neuromorphic systems are designed to have a very low energy consumption: a recently developed CMOS based neuron was proven to consume only few femto-Joule per operation which is several order of magnitude lower than what standard processors would need to execute similar operations. In this paper, we propose to study the theoretical performance of a neuro-based digital communication, where the signal detection is performed using an Integrate and Fire neuron. The main contribution is to derive the error probability of such a detector, either with one single neuron or with multiple neurons in parallel.