8th MCM – Podgorica, Montenegro, Oct 1 – 3

TD # Title Authors Abstract WGs
TD(18)08001 Novel Over-the-Air test method for 5G mmWave devices with beam forming capabilities David Reyes, Mark Beach, Evangelos Mellios, Moray Rumney To deliver the high capacity and throughput goals for 5G, the effective use of millimeter wave spectrum is necessary. When compared to sub-6GHz spectrum, these higher frequencies incur greater attenuation due path loss and blockages, necessitating the use of directional antennas at both ends of the communications link. These antenna facets are most likely to be implemented by means of an antenna array and beamformer in a highly integrated form within the RF transceiver. Hence, over the air testing (OTA) conformance testing of such systems will be necessary due to the absence of antenna connectors. This paper presents a novel OTA architecture facilitating the excitation of the device under test (DUT) from multiple narrow angels of illumination and the ability to dynamically vary this stimulus. This new method exploits the reflective properties of ellipsoidal surfaces to provide a cost-effective solution when compared with other competing solutions. EWG-OTA: Over-The-Air testing,
TD(18)08002 Resilience of airborne networks Hamed Ahmadi, Gianluca Fontanesi, Konstantinos Katzis, Muhammad Zeeshan Shakir, Anding Zhu Networked flying platforms can be used to provide cellular coverage and capacity. Given that 5G and beyond networks are expected to be always available and highly reliable, resilience and reliability of these networks must be investigated. This paper introduces the specific features of airborne networks that influence their resilience. We then discuss how machine learning and blockchain technologies can enhance the resilience of networked flying platforms. DWG3: NET Layer
TD(18)08003 NB-IoT: Performance Estimation and Optimal Configuration Luca Feltrin, Massimo Condoluci, Toktam Mahmoodi, Mischa Dohler, Roberto Verdone NB-IoT is a new radio access technology standardized by the 3GPP targeting a wide set of use cases for massive machine-type communications. Compared to technologies oriented to human-type traffic, NB-IoT has been enhanced in terms of coverage and power saving capabilities while reducing the complexity at the same time. These features allow devices in challenging positions to have connectivity, enabling long battery life. This paper provides a description of NB-IoT, and a mathematical model of the access mechanism to predict the best performance obtainable in a given scenario with a specific configuration of some of the design parameters. Finally, we present an analysis on how these parameters affect the performance and how the optimal configuration may be chosen according to an arbitrary criteria. EWG-IoT: Internet-of-Things
TD(18)08004 A study of the effect and mitigation of wind turbines

on telemetry links and digital TV reception

Karim M. Nasr In this paper, an assessment of the effect of deploying wind turbines in the vicinity of telemetry links used by utilities and on digital TV reception, is presented. The propagation mechanisms by which turbines affect radio transmissions are discussed as well as methods to calculate the clearance zone and the Wanted to Unwanted Ratio (WUR) or the Carrier to Interference Ratio (CIR) of an intended link. Example case studies are presented. A coordination and mitigation procedure is introduced with the aim of facilitating the deployment of wind turbines as a main source of renewable energy. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(18)08005 Indoor 1-40 GHz Channel Measurements Maria-Teresa Martinez-Ingles, Juan Pascual-Garcia Davy, P. Gaillot, Concepción Sanchís-Borrás, Jose-Maria Molina Garcia-Pardo This TD presents a multidimensional measurement campaign from 1 GHz to 40 GHz in an indoor environment. MIMO channel transfer functions were obtained using a Vector Network Analyzer and Optical-Radio transceivers. The Path Loss, RMS delay spread and K factor were computed from measured data. One of the main novelties in this contribution is the channel sounder, where 39 GHz are measured simultaneously, without distance limitation due to use of fiber optics. DWG2: PHY Layer
TD(18)08006 Outdoor 3G Location Tracking of Mobile Devices in Cellular Networks Jens Trogh, David Plets, Erik Surewaard, Mathias Spiessens, Mathias Versichele, Luc Martens and Wout Joseph This paper presents a technique for anonymous outdoor location tracking of mobile devices, completely performed on the network side without any interventions on the mobile side. The proposed technique uses 3G measurements, the topology of a mobile cellular network, and enriched open map data. Location updates are based on timing information, signal strength measurements, base station configurations, mode of transportation estimation, and advanced route filtering. Validation data consisting of millions of parallel location estimations from over a million users are collected in real-time in cooperation with a major network operator in Belgium. Experiments are conducted in urban and rural environments near Ghent and Antwerp, with trajectories on foot, by bike, and by car, in the months May and September 2017. It is shown that both the mode of transportation, base station density, and environment impact the accuracy and that the proposed AMT location tracking algorithm is more robust and outperforms existing techniques with relative improvements up to 88%. Best performances were obtained in urban environments with median accuracies up to 112m. Localisation and Tracking
TD(18)08007 On the worst-case influence of atmospheric circumstances on microwave links Emmanuel Van Lil, Roeland Van Malderen Some national authorities impose large consultation zones around microwave links [1]. When those areas are free of obstacles there is no problem, but usually they are considered as exclusion zones. Those large zones are inspired by the fact that the obstacle for which the authorisation is requested may not be the only one,

especially in the case of wind turbines. The national authorities (for Belgium BIPT/IBPT) impose limitations on the projections of the links in a horizontal plane, usually 3 times the largest size of the first Fresnel ellipsoid. In this document, we will investigate the 3D case to allow the application of more lenient criteria.

DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(18)08008 Neural network approach for human activity recognition on smartphones and smartwatches Martin Milenkoski, Kire Trivodaliev, Biljana Risteska Stojkoska Martin Milenkoski As activity recognition becomes an integral part of many mobile applications, its requirement for lightweight and accurate techniques leads to development of new tools and algorithms. This paper has three main contributions: (1) to design an architecture for automatic data collection, thus reducing the time and cost and making the process of developing new activity recognition techniques convenient for software developers as well as for the end users; (2) to develop new algorithm for activity recognition based on Long Short Term Memory networks, which is able to learn features from raw accelerometer data, completely bypassing the process of generating hand-crafted features; and (3) to investigate which combinations of smartphone and smartwatch sensors gives the best results for the activity recognition problem, i.e. to analyze if the accuracy benefits of those combinations are greater than the additional costs for combining those sensors. EWG-IoT: Internet-of-Things
TD(18)08009 TDoA-based Outdoor Positioning with Tracking Algorithm in a Public LoRa Network Nico Podevijn, David Plets, Jens Trogh, Luc Martens, Pieter Suanet, Kim Hendrikse, Wout Joseph The performance of LoRa Geo-location for outdoor tracking purposes has been investigated on a public LoRaWAN network. Time Difference of Arrival (TDoA) localization accuracy, update probability and update frequency were evaluated for different trajectories (walking, cycling, driving) and LoRa spreading factors. A median accuracy of 200m was obtained for the raw TDoA output data. In 90% of the cases the error was less than 480m. Taking into account the road map and movement speed significantly improves accuracy to a median of 75m and a 90th percentile error of less than 180m. EWG-IoT: Internet-of-Things,Localisation and Tracking
TD(18)08010 H-MAC Channel Phase Estimator with Hierarchical Data Decision Aided Feed-Back Gradient Solver Jan Sykora This paper focuses on the channel state estimation (CSE) problem in parametrized Hierarchical MAC (H-MAC) stage in Wireless Physical Layer Network Coding (WPNC) networks with Hierarchical Decode and Forward (HDF) relay strategy. We derive a non-pilot based H-MAC channel phase estimator for 2 BPSK alphabet sources. The CSE is aided only by the knowledge of H-data decisions. At HDF relay, there is no information on individual source symbols available. The estimator is obtained by a marginalization over the hierarchical dispersion. The estimator uses a gradient additive update solver and the indicator function (gradient) is derived in exact closed form and in approximations for low and high SNR. We analyze the properties of the equivalent solver model, particularly the equivalent gradient detector characteristics and its main stable domain properties under a variety of channel parameterization scenarios. DWG2: PHY Layer
TD(18)08011 A Channel Model for Polarised Off-Body Communications with Dynamic Users Kenan Turbic, Luis M. Correia and Marko Beko The paper presents an off-body channel model for polarised communications with dynamic users. The model is based on Geometrical Optics and Uniform Theory of Diffraction, and accounts for free space propagation, reflections and diffractions. It allows for arbitrary antennas’ polarisations and gain patterns, and supports a number of on-body antenna placements. In order to take the influence of users’ motion into account, a mobility model for wearable antennas on dynamic users is used. Signal depolarisation mechanisms are identified, and simulations are performed to analyse the influence of user dynamics on the channel. Results show that significant polarisation mismatch losses occur due to wearable antenna rotations, resulting in received power variations up to 37.5 dB for the Line-of-Sight component, and 41.4 dB for the scattered one. The importance of taking signal polarisation into account is demonstrated by comparing simulation results between polarised and non-polarised channel models in a free space propagation scenario, where the difference up to 53 dB in between the two is observed. DWG1: Radio Channels,SEWG-IoT: Internet-of-Things for Health
TD(18)08012 Performance Analysis of Mixture of Unicast and Multicast Sessions in 5G

NR System

Konstantin Samouylov, Yuliya Gaidamaka 3GPP New Radio (NR) air interface operating in a millimeter wave frequency band is expected to provide the main bearer service in the fifth generation (5G) mobile systems. Compensating for high propagation losses by using high gain antennas at both user equipment (UE) and access point (AP) sides these systems will greatly benefit from highly directional transmission serving unicast sessions. However, highly directional nature of NR communications may affect the conventional service procedures of multicast sessions in wireless networks as more than a single transmission may be required to serve UEs in the same multicast group. Accounting for random resource requirements induced by locations of UEs as well as human blockage phenomenon, we develop a model for performance analysis of 5G NR systems serving a mixture of unicast and multicast sessions. The main performance metrics of interest are drop probabilities of unicast and multicast sessions. The proposed model, complemented with antenna models and beam-steering procedure, can be further used to determine optimal AP intersite distance for 3GPP NR systems. DWG2: PHY Layer,DWG3: NET Layer
TD(18)08013 3D Map Implementation And Visualization for Radio Propagation Simulation Ossi Saukko, Aki Hekkala, Ville Pitkӓkangas, Anttoni Porri, Marjo Heikkilӓ This paper presents the techniques and solutions used in the proof of concept program for radio propagation simulations. The solution was implemented with the Qt 3D software component, and the article begins with the observations made on it. A novel method to join map materials of different coordinate systems together is introduced, and the resolution problem for the floating point numbers is also solved. In addition, the techniques used to draw maps and in particular visualization solutions are presented. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(18)08014 Efficient Detection and Clustering Mechanisms for Spectral-Activity Information


Krzysztof Cichoń, Hanna Bogucka The context information on spectral occupation and prediction of communication activity over various frequency bands will play a key role in the energy-efficient operation and co-existence of future networks, consisting of human-centric systems along with machine-to-machine communications. When addressing the spectrum-scarcity challenge, the scenarios can be dynamic in space and time, so self-adapting systems will prevail in 5G networks. The main goal of this article is to overview the benefits and drawbacks of sensing and clustering methods. DWG3: NET Layer
TD(18)08015 Internet of Things and Mobile Crowdsensing in Hypertensive Patients Tamara Škorić, Slađana Jovanović, Milan Jovanovic, Branislav Milovanović, Konstantinos Katzis, Dragana Bajić The Internet of Things (IoT) is a concept that integrates the physical world into the computer-based systems. Mobile crowd sensing (MCS) is singled out as an application that collects data from a network of conscientious volunteers and implements it for the common or for the personal benefit. The implementation proposed in this work collects the information from hypertensive patients in various surroundings (work, walk and mild exercise, rest) in order to create the database and, by means of machine-learning techniques, classify the current well-being of the patient. MCS applications do not encourage the transmission of sensed data, due to the bandwidth consumption and battery exhaustion. Subjects for transmission are features extracted from the recorded data using the processors in the wearable devices (smartphones or fitness devices). This raises an important issue of unsupervised data reliability, which is the topic of this contribution. SEWG-IoT: Internet-of-Things for Health
TD(18)08016 Clutter Loss in a Vegetated Residential Environment – Part-I Saul A. Torrico and Roger H. Lang A theoretical model is proposed to include the incoherent fields along with the quasi-coherent fields to compute the clutter loss in a vegetated residential environment, with particular application to mobile radio systems. As in the past, the row of houses/buildings is viewed as diffracting cylinders lying on the earth, and the trees are located adjacent to and above the houses/buildings. Physical optics is used to evaluate the diffracting fields at the receiver by using the multiple Kirchhoff-Huygens integration for each half-screen combination. The fields at the aperture of each half-screen depend on the mean field passing through a tree and the incoherent fields produced by the tree canopy. The mean field in the tree canopy is found by using the multiple scattering theory of Foldy-Lax. The incoherent field produced by the tree canopy is found by using the distorted Born approximation. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(18)08019 An Energy Efficient Service-based RAN slicing Technique in Virtual Wireless Networks Behnam Rouzbehani, Luis M. Correia, Luísa Caeiro This paper aims to address a service-based approach of Radio Access Network (RAN) slicing for on-demand Radio Resource Management (RRM) in virtual wireless networks, from a high-level perspective. In this regard, the functionalities related to service orchestration, such as satisfying contracted Service Level Agreements (SLAs) and customising radio bearers are managed by a centralised virtualisation platform called Virtual-RRM (VRRM) inside Service Data Adaptation Protocol sublayer, which is recently introduced in 5G New Radio, while mapping the service demands to be addressed by the underplaying physical Radio Access Technologies (RATs) is performed in another individual management entity called Common-RRM (CRRM), which is controlled by Infrastructure Providers (InPs). Therefore, the proposed model realises a separation in the role of Virtual Network Operators (VNOs) and InPs. The efficient interaction between VRRM and CRRM not only reduces the complexity of RAN slicing approach, but also provides a framework for InPs to address all the VNOs demands with the minimum number of active Base Stations, and in this regard save a considerable amount of energy. In order to evaluate the model, a practical scenario with 3 VNOs and differentiated types of contracted SLAs is proposed to provide a range of customised services. Results confirm a level of performance isolation among VNOs according to their customised service requirements. Furthermore, the algorithms of RAT selection and load balancing is capable of efficiently distribute the demands among the available RATs, in order to satisfy the InPs’ policies separately. DWG3: NET Layer
TD(18)08020 Conformal Automotive Antennas in the Roof

for Vehicle-to-X Communications

Gerald Artner, Wim Kotterman, Giovanni Del Galdo, Matthias A. Hein An automotive antenna concept for vehicular communications is proposed. Antennas are distributed in cavities and on shelves in the center and on the front and rear roof ends. The arrangement of antennas on the roof allows better radiation to the front and back of automobiles than shark-fins and single cavities. Combining several modules provides space for further antennas, sensors and integrated front-ends, as well as better spatial separation for MIMO arrays beyond 5G, and cooperative connected and automated driving. A prototype was developed and built into a car chassis. Measured data were analyzed and evaluated in the view of coverage for vulnerable road users and on correlation for MIMO. EWG-OTA: Over-The-Air testing,EWG-IoT: Internet-of-Things
TD(18)08021 A Minimum Average-delay and Maximum Spectral Efficiency Configuration Algorithm for Relay-assisted HARQ Transmissions Under Reliability and Maximum-delay Constraints Vasile Bota, Mihaly Varga The paper aims at establishing the maximum spectral efficiency and the corresponding average delay provided by the relay-assisted cooperative algorithm (CHARQ), presented in TD (17)05032, which operates under imposed target Block-error Rate (BLER) and maximum delay. The analysis is performed using adaptively a set of QAM constellations and convolutional coding rates, used in a generic OFDMA transmission scheme, over Rayleigh block-faded channels. To this end it presents an algorithm (Minq-MaxBeta) that configures the CHARQ by selecting the modulation and coding rate (MC) pair, out of a predefined set, which would require the smallest number of retransmissions and provide the greatest spectral, while keeping the probability of a lost block (BLERg) under an imposed target value BLERgt and observing a maximum number of retransmissions allowed qM. The algorithm selects the MC pair adaptively according to the SNRs of the three links involved, i.e. Source-Destination (SD), Source-Relay (SR) and Relay-Destination (RD) that are affected by path loss, Rayleigh fading and Gaussian noise. The performances of CHARQ using the proposed configuration algorithm are compared to the performances of an HARQ algorithm, operating only on the S-D link that uses the same configuration algorithm. The results obtained show that, when configured with Minq-MaxBeta, the CHARQ algorithm ensures BLERgt at smaller SNR values, than the non-cooperative HARQ, and requires a smaller average number of rounds at low SNR values. The SNR gain of CHARQ over HARQ increases with the decrease of the target BLER. These improvements come at the expense of smaller spectral efficiency. DWG2: PHY Layer
TD(18)08022 1-bit Localization Scheme for Radar using Dithered Quantized Compressed Sensing Thomas Feuillen, Chunlei Xu, Luc Vandendorpe and Laurent Jacques We present a novel scheme allowing for 2D target localization using highly quantized 1-bit measurements from a Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar with two receiving antennas. Quantization of radar signals introduces localization artifacts, we remove this limitation by inserting a dithering on the unquantized observations. We then adapt the projected back projection algorithm to estimate both the range and angle of targets from the dithered quantized radar observations, with provably decaying reconstruction error when the number of observations increases. Simulations are performed to highlight the accuracy of the dithered scheme in noiseless conditions when compared to the non-dithered and full 32-bit resolution under severe bit-rate reduction. Finally, measurements are performed using a radar sensor to demonstrate the effectiveness and performances of the proposed quantized dithered scheme in real conditions. Localisation and Tracking
TD(18)08023 Path Optimization for Unmanned Aerial Base Stations with Limited Radio Resources Silvia Mignardi, Chiara Buratti, Valentina Cacchiani, Roberto Verdone We consider a mobile radio network where Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also known as drones, are used as a viable alternative to traditional static Terrestrial Base Stations (TBSs). UAVs can fly over the terrestrial plane, where and when TBSs cannot provide the requested coverage and capacity, that is acting as Unmanned Aerial Base Stations (UABs). To this aim, it is important to optimize both the path of the drone and the number of radio resources to be assigned to the users along the path. This paper formulates the problem as an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) model with the aim of maximizing the number of served users, weighted according to their priorities, while considering constraints on UAB battery, speed, data rate and radio resources that the UAB can provide to the users. A Rolling Horizon heuristic algorithm is proposed to heuristically solve the problem: it is based on dividing the time horizon in time windows, and iteratively solving the ILP model on the single time windows. Even though the Rolling Horizon heuristic algorithm provides sub-optimal solutions, the computing time is acceptable, thus allowing the algorithm to be used in practice. EWG-IoT: Internet-of-Things
TD(18)08024 Statistical modelling of short-range interference paths Richard Rudd There is a frequent requirement in spectrum sharing studies (e.g. in relation to frequency assignment for 5G systems at WRC-19) to assess the basic transmission loss on short (typically less than 1 km) outdoor paths in a variety of environments. One example might be cases where it is proposed to make adjacent-band allocations to services operating in the same geographical area. In most sharing studies, it is required that the results of the modelling are generic (i.e. no site specific inputs to the model are necessary) and are presented in statistical terms (typically path loss not exceeded for a given probability). A useful model must also be suitable for computer implementation, often within a Monte Carlo framework. Many existing models are deterministic in the sense that they apply to specific geometries or environments which makes it impossible to apply such models in the general case where statistics covering all path geometries are required. This paper considers some options for the development of a single, unambiguous method for the prediction of basic transmission loss. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(18)08025 Performance Evaluation and Packet Scheduling in HeNB Deployments Rui R. Paulo, Fernando J. Velez and Giuseppe Piro The unsupervised and chaotic deployment of Home eNBs (HeNBs) is leading to high levels of interference. To understand the behaviour of the interference of these uncoordinated deployments is vital to reach significant capacity improvement and also to explore opportunities to save energy. This paper considers high and middle interference level scenarios, with a maximum of four users per cell. HeNBs indoor deployed is considered within building. We theoretically analyse the traffic performance of this scenario through the study of the Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise-Ratio (SINR). Through the use of the LTE-Sim simulator one obtains the quality indicators for two flows that are being utilised by the users. Video and best effort are studied, while varying the transmitter power and the areas of the apartments. The achieved SINR is higher (around 10 dBm) when the area of the cells is smaller. The variation of the transmitter power of the HeNBs does not present any significant impact. Noticeable throughout the simulations is observed that is possible to operate the system without setting the transmitter power of HeNBs to the maximum value at both interference levels. Simulation results also show that with the considered flows is possible to serve the maximum number of four users per HeNB with high quality. This statement is confirmed by the maximum achieved Packet Loss Ratio for video with a value of value of 1.6 %, which is lower than the maximum of 2 % indicated by the 3GPP. Taking into account the obtained results it is possible to promote a reduction in energy consumption of the HeNBs without penalizing the service quality. DWG3: NET Layer
TD(18)08026 SIMO RSS Measurement in Bluetooth Low Power Indoor Positioning System Stanislav Rozum, Jiri Sebesta, Martin Slanina, Ladislav Polak This paper deals with the study of received signal strength (RSS) as an input reference used in Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) Indoor Positioning System (IPS) for location estimation. In the IPS where there are fixed scanners and portable advertisers which are sending no additional data, the RSS is the only reference for location process. Therefore, it is important to suppress RSS fluctuation caused by fading. The proposed method uses spatial diversity (SIMO approach) in combination with frequency diversity. Two different distances between four antennas were tested and for a quarter of the wavelength additional arrangement using back-side reflector was taken. Localisation and Tracking
TD(18)08027 A Stochastic Performance Model For Dense Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks Thomas Blazek, Taulant Berisha, Edon Gashi, Bujar Krasniqi, Christoph F. Mecklenbräuker The usual approach to assess performance in dense urban networks is to use mobility simulators and network simulators. This implies strong simplifications and abstractions on the physical layer, while providing fine-grained resolution on the geometry and packet properties. In this paper, we extend the usual approach by including more detailed physical-layer models. This gives a higher-fidelity baseline against which we can compare simplifications. Then, we proceed to reduce the geometric vehicle distribution to a stochastic interferer process. Finally, we show the differences in simulation fidelity at different stages of abstraction. We base our analysis on IEEE 802.11p and demonstrate that the typical simplifications, while well adapted to static networks, fail to capture essential properties of a highly mobile channel. DWG3: NET Layer
TD(18)08028 An Analytical Raytracer for Efficient D2D Path Loss Predictions Nils Dreyer, Thomas Kürner The communication between two devices (D2D) plays an important role for future networks as Internet of Things (IoT) or Intelligent Transport System (ITS). A challenging task is the simulation of the physical layer in highly dynamic networks with plenty of moving devices. Nowadays such simulations are mostly performed using stochastic channels models completely neglecting specific spatial effects. Ray optical path loss predictions (Raytracing), considering 3D building data, are often seen as not suitable for large networks because of its high complexity combined with its long processing time. In this paper we will introduce a novel calculation method that leads to a significant speed up of Raytracing predictions. The approach analytically investigates a scenario and precalculates the visibility between all surfaces in a scenario and stores it in a Surface Relation Tree (SRT). For moving devices the changing propagation paths can be quickly determined even for higher orders of reflection. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(18)08029 A Geo-Locational Spectrum Database for Cyprus – Support TVWS for rural Internet access in 5G Giannis Papas, Konstantinos Katzis, Luzango Mfupe The digital switchover (DSO) has resulted in some quite significant White Spaces (WS) in the TV frequency spectrum. Over the last decade it has become a resource that has been greatly sought after. Several countries around the globe have enforced regulations for license exempt secondary access to this spectrum, while ensuring that no interference is cause to incumbent networks. Such regulations require the establishment of Geolocation spectrum databases (GLSD). Geo-location spectrum databases have the benefits of enabling TVWS network deployment, while they provide a tool to limit harmful interference to primary TV spectrum users, promote efficient radio frequency (RF) utilization and the development of enabling regulatory framework for dynamic spectrum access (DSA) policy. This work aims to initiate the creation of a fully operational TV White Space (TVWS) system in Cyprus. A web application has been developed, using the web API framework and adhering to the methods defined by CSIR (ZA), that initiates requests with the appropriate data to the designated Calculation Engine (CE) and receives channel availability information for each chosen location. The purpose of this application is to enable to usage of TVWS spectrum in Cyprus. DWG3: NET Layer
TD(18)08030 Super-Resolution Channel Estimation Including the Dense Multipath Component – A Sparse Variational Bayesian Approach Stefan Grebien, Erik Leitinger, Bernard H. Fleury, Klaus Witrisal In this paper, we present a sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) algorithm for super resolution estimation of single-input-multiple-output (SIMO) multipath channel parameters. SBL algorithms are well suited for estimating jointly the model order and parameters of superimposed signals. In particular, the proposed algorithm is a type-II SBL algorithm with a hierarchical gamma-Gaussian prior that considers beside the dispersion parameters of the specular multipath components (MPCs) also the noise and dense multipath (DM) parameters. The DM process arises from the non-resolvability of many MPCs due to finite measurement aperture and can severely degrade the estimation accuracy of the signal atom’s locations as well as the estimation of the model order, if not properly treated. We present the probability of estimating artifacts in a SIMO measurement setup, to counteract the trend of point-estimate-based SBL algorithms to overestimate the model order. Using synthetic and real channel measurements, we show that the proposed algorithm has the ability to estimate the model parameters with high accuracy and the model order with only a marginal bias. DWG1: Radio Channels,Localisation and Tracking
TD(18)08031 Fully Parallel Distributed Massive MIMO Channel Measurements in Urban Vehicular Scenario David Löschenbrand, Markus Hofer, Laura Bernadó, Gerhard Humer, Bernhard Schrenk, Stefan Zelenbaba and Thomas Zemen We present a measurement framework for rapidly time-varying distributed massive Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) channels. We introduce a custom-built calibration device to facilitate calibration of multiple transceivers as well as a synchronization structure for distributed massive MIMO arrays. Measurements are performed with two transmit and 32 receive antennas in parallel with 115 MHz bandwidth and 1ms repetition rate at a carrier frequency of 3.52GHz. The transmit antennas are mounted on a car moving through an urban environment while the receive antennas are placed on the rooftop of a building. We analyze collocated and distributed receive antenna setups as well as channel aging effects due to mobility of the transmitter. DWG1: Radio Channels,DWG2: PHY Layer
TD(18)08032 An update on “Simple Scattering and Diffraction

Models using Point Cloud Maps for Channel Model

and Connectivity Predictions”

Jean-Frédéric Wagen and Karol Kruzelecki A previous contribution, TD(18)07032, is extended with more details related to the connectivity measurements and simulations at 5 GHz. One of the several challenges for high capacity wireless communications is to find a suitable propagation model able to predict as accurately as possible the propagation channel to assess the performance of wide-band wireless systems. The propagation channel is here described by its impulse response, i.e., a set of multipath components due to radio propagation. An investigation of so-called point cloud propagation models based on the detailed topographical data available in Switzerland is conducted. The results of the point cloud predictions are compared to wide band impulse response measurements. To challenge the validity of the prediction models, simulation results have been compared to 5 GHz WiFi connectivity measurements for an outdoor picocell. The results are encouraging: point cloud map based models might prove to be useful to provide realistic radio channels or coverage prediction. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(18)08033 FRET-based nanocommunication in organic structures of plant origin Aleksandra Orzechowska, Joanna Fiedor, Pawel Kulakowski The intention of this article is to put researchers’ attention on the molecules of plant origin, like carotenoids and chlorophylls, which can serve very well for the purposes of nanocommunication. Carotenoids are additionally able to harvest energy from their environment absorbing sunlight. They can further pass signals to chlorophyll molecules via Foerster resonance energy transfer. Carotenoids and chlorophylls can thus perform functions of nanotransmitters and nanoreceivers, respectively, and their communication can be fuelled by the locally acquired energy. We performed a laboratory experiment using a membrane protein supercomplex termed as photosystem II that play a crucial role in the process of photosynthesis on Earth. Photosystem II (PSII) is a well-organized and self-driven structure containing photosynthetic pigments such as carotenoids and chlorophylls. We measured the absorption and excitation spectra of the PSII complex and then calculated the efficiency of the signal transfer between the carotenoid, beta-carotene, and the chlorophyll-a. We discussed the obtained results comparing them with other carotenoids. EWG-IoT: Internet-of-Things,SEWG-IoT: Internet-of-Things for Health
TD(18)08034 Reproducing measured MANET radio performances

using the EMANE framework

Jean-Frédéric Wagen, Alexandre Nikodemski, François Buntschu, Gérôme Bovet Contribution to COMMAG: Simulation or emulation of mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) are used to predict or analyze the performance of MANETs under various scenarios. One challenge is to emulate realistically the MANET’s radio performance. Running the Extendable Mobile Ad hoc Network Emulator (EMANE) framework, it is shown how to reproduce measured characteristics, namely throughput and Round Trip Time, of real tactical radios using wideband or narrowband TDMA based waveforms. Additionally, a solution to simulate rate adaptation

is proposed. An introduction to EMANE and the EMANE radio model plugins is also provided. We also present preliminary results of the performance for the simulated TDMA radios in the so-called Anglova Scenario. To our knowledge such results have not been obtained so far using EMANE.

DWG3: NET Layer,EWG-RA: Radio Access
TD(18)08035 Recent developments in mmWave requirements and test methods for 5G Moray Rumney 3GPP published the first 5G New Radio specifications in June 2018. This paper will discuss key mmWave radio requirements in terms of what has and hasn’t been defined and the associated test methods. DWG1: Radio Channels,EWG-OTA: Over-The-Air testing
TD(18)08036 Variability of the Dielectric Properties Due to Tissue Heterogeneity and Its Influence on the Development of EM Phantoms A. Fornes-Leal, C. Garcia-Pardo, S. Castelló-Palacios, M. Frasson, A. Nevárez, V. Pons Beltrán, and N. Cardona Electromagnetic phantoms are either software tools or physical materials that emulate the dielectric properties of biological tissues. Among them, muscle, fat and skin phantoms are some of the most used ones. For their proper development, careful knowledge of the dielectric properties of their respective real tissues is required. In general, the data of a measurement campaign -Gabriel’s database generally- are used as target reference values, without considering their variability due to issues such as tissue heterogeneity, sample condition or subject’s age. These aspects may have a significant impact in the range of the values of the dielectric properties, and thus using just their mean values may not be the best choice for all kinds of experiments. In this paper, the variability of the in vivo dielectric properties of abdominal tissues such as muscle, fat, skin, stomach serosa, small intestine serosa and colon serosa due to their heterogeneity is presented. For this purpose, a measurement campaign has been performed on 3 different porcine subjects using the open-ended coaxial method in the 0.5 – 26.5 GHz frequency band. Several measurements were driven in different tissue locations of each specimen. The mean values are compared to in vivo measurements presented in literature so far, whereas possible implications of tissue heterogeneity for developing phantoms for certain applications are briefly discussed. DWG1: Radio Channels,SEWG-IoT: Internet-of-Things for Health
TD(18)08037 Stochastic Multipath Model for the In-Room Radio Channel based on Room Electromagnetics Troels Pedersen We propose a stochastic multipath model for the received signal for the case where the transmitter and receiver, both with directive antennas, are situated in the same rectangular room. This scenario is known to produce channel impulse responses with a gradual specular-to-diffuse transition in delay. Mirror source theory predicts the arrival rate to be quadratic in delay, inversely proportional to room volume and proportional to the product of the antenna beam coverage fractions. We approximate the mirror source positions by a homogeneous spatial Poisson point process and their gain as complex random variables with the same second moment. The multipath delays in the resulting model form an inhomogeneous Poisson point process which enables derivation of the characteristic functional, power/kurtosis delay spectra, and the distribution of order statistics of the arrival delays in closed form. We find that the proposed model matches the mirror source model well in terms of power delay spectrum, kurtosis delay spectrum, order statistics, and prediction of mean delay and rms delay spread. The constant rate model, assumed in e.g. the Saleh-Valenzuela model, is unable to reproduce the same effects. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(18)08038 Reduced Complexity Transfer Function Computation for Complex Indoor Channels

Using Propagation Graphs

Ramoni Adeogun, Troels Pedersen and Ayush Bharti This paper presents a low complexity method for computation of the transfer matrix of wireless channels in complex indoor environments using propagation graphs. Multi-room indoor environments can be represented in a vector signal flow graph with with rooms in the complex structure as nodes and propagation between rooms as branches. The transfer matrix can be computed using Mason’s theorem which lead to a much-reduced computational complexity. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(18)08039 The 5G Verticals INNovation Infrastructure (5G-VINNI) Project Pål Grønsund, Per Hjalmar Lehne 5G-VINNI will facilitate the uptake of 5G in Europe by providing an end-to-end facility that validates the performance of new 5G technologies, and explore solutions for vertical industries such as public safety, eHealth, shipping, transportation, media and entertainment and automotive. The project will leverage the latest 5G technologies, including results from previous 5G PPP phases. This approach employs advanced network virtualization, slicing, radio and core technologies. In addition, a rigorous automated testing campaign will be employed to validate 5G under various combinations of technologies and network loads. 5G-VINNI end-to-end facility will be run at four main sites located in Norway, UK, Spain and Greece. In addition, experimental sites will be established in Germany and Portugal as well as in a satellite interconnected mobile experimentation facility site. Open application programming interfaces (APIs) will be provided in order to ensure easy access to the 5G-VINNI facility. The 5G-VINNI initiative comprises 23 partners including major telecom operators, industry vendors and academia. It is part of EU’s Horizon2020 programme and will be coordinated by Telenor Group, the international telecom operator headquartered in Norway. DWG3: NET Layer,EWG-OTA: Over-The-Air testing,EWG-IoT: Internet-of-Things,EWG-RA: Radio Access,SEWG-IoT: Internet-of-Things for Health
TD(18)08040 Frequency Characteristics of Diffuse Scattering in SHF band in Indoor Environments Kentaro Saito, Panawit Hanpinitsak, Wei Fan, Jun-ichi Takada, Gert F. Pedersen In the fifth-generation mobile communication system (5G), the millimeter wave band wireless communication is highly expected to increase the network capacity drastically. The radio propagation characteristics of the millimeter wave band are thought to be quite different from the microwave band that has been used for the current mobile wireless communication. Therefore, it is needed to clarify those differences in a comparable way for the feasibility investigation of the millimeter wave communication system in the actual environment. In this paper, we focused on the frequency characteristics of the diffuse scattering of radio waves. The diffuse scattering is caused by the irregular scattering from uneven reflection surfaces, and it is thought to have the significant frequency dependency. However, those characteristics have not been clarified even though it affects the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission performance. We conducted the channel measurements in 3 GHz, 10 GHz and 28 GHz bands in the hall and the laboratory room to solve the issue. The result showed that the power and the angular spread of diffuse scattering tended to decrease as the carrier frequency increased. The parameter estimation of diffuse scattering waves from the measured data and the further detailed investigation of the physical mechanism will be the future works. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(18)08041 The OpenAirInterface 5G New Radio project Florian Kaltenberger 3GPP has just finished specifying the first version of the 5G new radio. Operators, infrastructure vendors, and chip manufacturers are currently racing to release and deploy the first 5G-NR products. Also OpenAirInterface, the open-source software defined radio project that has already delivered the first standard-compliant implementation of 4G-LTE, is currently implementing 5G-NR. In this presentation we are going to describe the key features of 5G-NR, the challenges in implementing these features on a software defined radio platform, the current development status, and the roadmap of the project. This TD is a presentation only. EWG-RA: Radio Access
TD(18)08042 Angle of Arrival-based Beam Selection for Hybrid Beamforming with Machine and Deep Learning Carles Antón-Haro, Xavier Mestre This paper investigates how angle-of-arrival (AoA) information can be exploited by deep-/machine-learning approaches to perform beam selection in the uplink of a mmWave communication system. Specifically, we consider a hybrid beamforming setup comprising an analog beamforming (ABF) network followed by a zero-forcing baseband processing block. The goal is to select the optimal configuration for the ABF network based on the estimated AoAs of the various user equipments. To that aim, we consider (i) two supervised machine-learning schemes: k-nearest neighbors (kNN) and support vector classifiers (SVC); and (ii) a feed-forward deep neural network: the multilayer perceptron (MLP). Computer simulations reveal that, for a suitable codebook of analog beamformers, this task can be effectively accomplished by such data-driven schemes. Performance, in terms of sum-rate, is very close to that achievable via exhaustive search. Localisation and Tracking
TD(18)08043 Preliminary Results of Porting RIOT OS to OpenMote-B Hardware Platform Darko Simić, Gordana Gardašević, Dragan Vasiljević RIOT is a real-time multi-threading operating system (OS) that implements a microkernel architecture and supports a wide range of IoT devices. This OS is based on the following design principles: energy-efficiency, real-time capabilities, small memory footprint, modularity, and uniform API access, independent of the underlying hardware. RIOT aims to implement all relevant open standards for IoT applications. A new board, OpenMote-B, is currently being released. This is the first board that fully supports the IEEE 802.15.4g standard including MR-OFDM modulations for robust communications. OpenMote-B is a dual-band device thus allowing communications using 2.4 GHz, as well as 868 MHz. We provide preliminary results of experimentation obtained by porting RIOT to OpenMote-B devices. EWG-IoT: Internet-of-Things
TD(18)08044 Above-90GHz Spectrum as Enabler for Efficient Tbit/s Wireless Communications Yoann Corre, Grégory Gougeon, Jean-Baptiste Doré, Simon Bicais, Dimitri Kténas, Jacques Palicot, Carlos Faouzi Bader, Emmanuel Faussurier The radio spectrum above 90GHz offers opportunities for huge signal bandwidths, and thus unprecedented increase in the wireless network capacity, beyond the performance defined for the 5G technology. This spectrum is essentially exploited for scientific services, but attracts nowadays much interest within the wireless telecommunications research community, following the same trend as in previous network generations. The BRAVE project that was launched at early 2018, aims at the elaboration of new waveforms able to efficiently operate in the 90–200 GHz spectrum. The researches rely on three complementary works: the definition of relevant communications scenarios (spectrum usage, application, environment, etc); the development of realistic models for the physical layer (propagation channel and RF equipments); and the elaboration of efficient single-carrier modulations. The motivation for this work, and the preliminary results on the propagation channel characterization, are exposed in the present paper. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(18)08045 Using Ray-based Deterministic Simulations for Large-scale System Level Evaluation of a Massive MIMO Network Mohammed Zahid Aslam, Yoann Corre, Emil Bjornson, Erik G. Larsson Large-scale massive MIMO network deployments can provide high spectral efficiency and better coverage for future communication systems like 5G. Due to the large number of antennas at the base station, the system achieves stable channel quality and spatially separable channels to the different users. In this paper, linear, planar, circular and cylindrical arrays are used in the evaluation of a large-scale multi-cell massive MIMO network. The system-level performance is predicted using two different kinds of channel models. First, a ray-based deterministic tool is utilized in a real North American city environment. Second, an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channel model is considered, as often used in published massive MIMO studies. The analysis is conducted in a 16-macro-cell network with outdoor and randomly distributed users. It is shown that the array configuration has a large impact on the throughput statistics. Although the system-level performance with i.i.d. Rayleigh fading can be close to the deterministic prediction in some situations (e.g., with large linear arrays), significant differences are noticed when considering other types of arrays. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(18)08046 Flow Watermarking for Traffic

Analysis and Intrusion Tracing in 5G

Boris Assanovich Inter-packet-delay (IPD) watermarking schemes for traffic analysis and intrusion tracing in 5G networks based on QIM modulation and error-correcting coding for channels with indels (insertion, deletion) and substitution errors with invisible embedded watermarks is proposed. Statistical and computational experiments demonstrate that proposed scheme outperforms the known coded IPD-based flow watermarking schemes and has a significant advantage in detection rate and implementation complexity. DWG3: NET Layer
TD(18)08047 Fixing Randomness of 3GPP Clustered Delay Line Models Pekka Kyösti, Jukka Kyröläinen, Lassi Hentilä This paper discusses the need of randomness on clustered delay line (CDL) models and methods to reduce the randomness if found necessary. CDL models are a sub category on geometry based stochastic channel models. CDL models specified by 3GPP are widely used in simulations and other link performance evaluations by the industry and some times also by the academia. The process of generating realizations of radio channel impulse responses contains certain steps and randomness within the steps. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(18)08048 Channel Hardening in Massive MIMO: Experimental Validation and Model Parameters Sara Gunnarsson, Jose Flordelis, Liesbet Van der Perre, Fredrik Tufvesson Reliability in communication systems is become increasingly important in order to realize many of the applications envisioned for future wireless systems. Massive MIMO, Multiple-Input Multiple-Output, is one technology which can improve the reliability. One reason for this is that as the number of antennas in the system increases, the variations of the channel gain decrease. This phenomena called channel hardening appears in both time- and frequency domain. In this paper, channel hardening in massive MIMO is validated through experiments and important modeling parameters are highlighted. The theory behind channel hardening is presented and data from measurement campaigns including both indoor- and outdoor scenarios and cylindrical- and planar base station arrays are analyzed. The COST 2100 model with massive MIMO extensions as well as a simulation framework for multiple-antenna terminals in massive MIMO systems have been evaluated in terms of channel hardening. Then, measurement results, theory and simulation frameworks are compared and jointly analyzed. DWG1: Radio Channels
TD(18)08049 Resource Allocation in Wireless Mesh Networks with OFDMA Modulation Arie Reichman, Shahaf Wayer, Miri Priesler (Moreno) This paper focuses on OFDMA wireless mesh network systems with OFDMA modulation and the problem of time/frequency resource allocation, particularly with regard to subcarriers. It is a continuation of the TD(18)070734 presented at Cartagena meeting, that delt with allocation of frequency bands and time sloats. In this paper the results are extended to allocation of

subcarriers within frequency bands. Graph theory tools are used for time/frequency resource allocation in an arbitrary architecture. A linear time complexity algorithm was presented and finaly a combinatorial optimization scheme was proposed to achive the goal of minimum resouce utilization over a network and allow frequency reuse. Index terms—Wireless Mesh Networks, OFDMA,

resource allocation, subcarrier allocation, graph colouring, graph theory, graph algorithms, combinatorial optimization algorithms.

DWG2: PHY Layer,DWG3: NET Layer
TD(18)08050 Copula-Based Interference Models and Fundamental Limits in IoT Wireless Networks Ce Zheng, Malcolm Egan, Laurent Clavier, Gareth W. Peters and Jean-Marie Gorce As the Internet of Things (IoT) is largely supported by wireless communication networks in unlicensed bands, there has been a proliferation of technologies that uses a large variety of protocols. An ongoing challenge is how these networks can coexist given that they have different power levels, symbol periods, and access protocols. In this paper, we study the statistics of interference due to IoT networks that transmit small amounts of data. A key observation is that sets of active devices change rapidly, which leads to impulsive noise channels. Moreover, these devices operate on multiple partially overlapping resource blocks. As such, we characterize the joint distribution and propose a tractable model based on copulas. Using our copula model, we derive closed-form achievable rates. This provides a basis for resource allocation and network design for coexisting IoT networks. DWG2: PHY Layer,EWG-IoT: Internet-of-Things
TD(18)08052 Optimization of the mobile offloading scheme in fog computing infrastructure Luis M Correia, Eduard Sopin, Konstantin Samouylov Fog computing provides the computational power of cloud computing with very low latencies. which makes it a good solution for resource-greedy and response time critical mobile applications. In the paper, we assume that tasks are not uniform and they significantly differ in amount of required work. We propose the offloading criterion based on amount of required work for a task, so that “heavy” tasks are offloaded to the fog and “light” tasks are processed locally on mobile devices. The proposed offloading scheme is analyzed in terms of queuing systems. Moreover, the
optimization problem is formulated and the optimal offloading threshold is found.
DWG2: PHY Layer, DWG3: NET Layer