4th TM – LUND, SWEDEN, MAY 29 – 31, 2017

TD Title Author(s) Abstract WG(s)
TD(17)04001 A Fair Mechanism of Virtual Radio Resource Management in Multi-RAT Wireless Het-Nets Behnam Rouzbehani, Luis M. Correia, Luísa Caeiro Wireless network virtualisation is a promising technology for the future of mobile communications, which provides efficient and convergent mechanisms of resource management for emerging heterogeneous wireless networks. This paper proposes a model of virtual radio resource management in wireless heterogeneous networks, which can address the data rate requirements of different service classes provided by a virtual network operator while implementing an efficient algorithm of fairness to satisfy the users based on their service priorities. The model is further extended to deal with the high traffic load situations when there is not enough capacity to serve all the users. A practical scenario is implemented to evaluate the performance of the model and the results show that maximum utilisation of the available capacity is achieved independent of the traffic load, while service level agreements are satisfied. Moreover, where possible, the proposed algorithm can keep a level of fairness among the users from different service classes according to the pre-defined serving weights. DWG3
TD(17)04002 Implementation and measurement of 5G waveform candidate using OpenAirInterface Kun Chen-Hu, Florian Kaltenberger and Ana Garcia Armada The Fifth Generation of mobile communications (5G) is being standardized in order to reach higher data rates and deploy new services. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has a high Out-of-Band Emissions (OBE) which forces us to leave wider guard bands, reducing so the spectral efficiency. Recently, we have proposed the masked-OFDM which is capable of fulfilling the requirements of 5G and avoid the main issues of the proposed candidates. OpenAirInterface (OAI) is a powerful and flexible wireless technology platform based on the Long-Term Evolution (LTE) ecosystem, which offers the possibility of evaluating the entire mobile communication system. In this paper, we will evaluate the proposed waveform candidate using the OAI throughout some measurements. DWG2,EWG-RA
TD(17)04003 Association of Transmitters in Multipath-Assisted Positioning Markus Ulmschneider, Christian Gentner, Thomas Jost and Armin Dammann A huge variety of services require a precise localization. While global navigation satellite systems may show accurate positioning results in good view-to-sky conditions, their performance decreases drastically in case of shadowing and multipath propagation, such as indoors or in urban scenarios. Our approach is therefore to use terrestrial signals of opportunity for positioning. We exploit multipath propagation in a multipath-assisted positioning approach: each multipath component (MPC) is regarded as being emitted by a virtual transmitter in a line-of-sight condition. Since the locations of the virtual transmitters are unknown, they are estimated in addition to the user position. This results in a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem, where physical and virtual transmitters are considered as landmarks. This paper discusses our approach named Channel-SLAM, and extends it by a solution to the data association problem. We present and compare two different methods to decide for associations among virtual transmitters. By means of simulations we show that data association can increase the positioning performance remarkably. EWG-LT
TD(17)04004 Line-Of-Sight Massive MIMO Channel Characteristics in an Indoor Scenario at 94 GHz Frédéric Challita, Maria-Teresa Martinez-Ingles, Martine Liénard, Jose-Maria Molina-Garcia-Pardo and Davy P. Gaillot Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems provided an important step in the development of reliable and high-throughput wireless systems. Furthermore, to cope with the explosion of data traffic, massive MIMO and millimeter wave (mmW) technology have been proposed as promising approaches to further increase throughput and spectral efficiency. In this work, the fading and correlation characteristics of virtual, yet realistic, Line-of-Sight (LOS) 4*2500 massive MIMO channels are investigated at 94 GHz in an indoor office environment for three scenarios. The capability of the massive MIMO channel to spatially decorrelate close Rx users is evaluated with the computation of the channel correlation and other metrics. In particular, the concept of transmitting correlation is introduced to describe the correlation between channel vectors for a given user and its relationship with receiving correlation. The results demonstrate without ambiguity the capability of mmW massive MIMO systems to reach orthogonal Tx-Rx streams with maximum capacity even for a small 7*7 antenna array subset. Moreover, the decorrelation between users in this frequency range is shown to be only reached via phase decorrelation processes. DWG1
TD(17)04005 Evaluation of Large-Scale Parameters in Urban Microcells at 3.8 GHz Claude Oestges, Natalia Dementieva and Evgenii Vinogradov This paper evaluates MIMO radio channel measurements at 3.8 GHz, conducted in various urban microcell environments in Louvain-la-Neuve. Large-scale parameters, such as shadow fading, delay and angular spreads, are extracted and compared with values provided by existing models (COST 273, COST 2100 and 3GPP-3D). DWG1
TD(17)04006 / / / /
TD(17)04007 Reducing the gap between bounds and LDPC decoding performance I. Bocharova, V. Skachek An overview of practical approaches to decoding LDPC codes is given. A comparison of the frame error rate performance of belief propagation and near-maximum likelihood decoding with theoretical bounds on the performance of maximum-likelihood decoding is performed. DWG2
TD(17)04008 Radio Channel Measurements in 868 MHz Off-Body Communications in a Ferry Environment Krzysztof K. Cwalina, Slawomir J. Ambroziak, Piotr Rajchowski, Luis M. Correia In this paper, a characterization of the 868 MHz off-body radio channel in BANs is presented. Measurements were carried out in a ferry environment using a specific set-up. A method for path loss using radio distance measurements (RDMs) was developed. It allows to automate the measurements process and make it independent from the variable speed of a moving person. Based on the observed path loss as a function of distance, the obtained values are divided into Line-of-Sight (LOS) and Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS) conditions. The results show that, in LOS, the smallest path loss mean value (67.79 dB) and standard deviation (3.87 dB) were obtained for the placement of the mobile node (MN) on the chest (TO_F) of a moving person in an approaching scenario (APR). In NLOS, the lowest path loss mean value (71.57 dB) was also obtained for the same scenario. In other scenarios, more than approximately 5 dB higher path loss mean value was obtained. SEWG-IoT
TD(17)04009 Link-Level WLAN Simulator: Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.11 Technologies Jiri Milos, Ladislav Polak, Martin Slanina, Tomas Kratochvil Due to the upcoming 5G technology, interest for advanced and compatible simulators with high flexibility to explore the performance of Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) is rapidly increasing. In this paper, we present a MATLAB-based link-level simulator for WLAN with still used (IEEE 802.11g/n/ac) and upcoming (IEEE 802.11ah/af/ax) technologies. Realization of the whole WLAN link-level simulator is highly inspired by the recognized Vienna LTE-simulator. Furthermore, it is possible to join together these simulators to explore the performance of WLAN and LTE, operating in the same radio frequency (RF) band. The proposed link-level WLAN simulator allows to explore basic performances of WLAN technologies on physical layer (PHY) level and evaluate basic co-existence scenarios between LTE and WLAN in the ISM bands. Its functionality is demonstrated by several experimental results. DWG2,EWG-OTA
TD(17)04010 Tools for Evaluation of Social Relations in Mobility Models D. Hrabcak, M. Matis, L. Dobos, J. Papaj Detection of social relations ties among nodes is important because of mobile devices in the MANET-DTN networks are carried by humans which are social creatures that live and move in social groups. For those reasons, mobility models should follow human behavior. In this paper, tools for evaluation of social relations from movement in mobility models are described as new evaluation method. Based on this proposed evaluation methods is possible to decide, whenever used mobility model show signs of social behavior. Proposed evaluation method was created based on Louvain method for community detection and other network graph parameter (average weighted degree). Usage of evaluation method is possible with proper output format based on contacts among nodes from mobility models. Simulations of evaluation method were made as a comparison between two random mobility models and one social based mobility model. All models were simulated with a different number of nodes and radio ranges and evaluated by proposed method and other existing protocol dependent and independent methods. Our proposed evaluation method analyse the social behavior of mobility models and the results are compared with other evaluation methods mentioned in this paper. DWG3
TD(17)04011 Extreme Wideband Arbitrary Waveform Generator Based on Frequency Multiplexing Andreas Czylwik, Stefan Bieder, and Marius Sichma An arbitrary waveform generator with a bandwidth of 60 GHz is presented. The extreme wideband signal is created by frequency-multiplexing of three wideband signals with a bandwidth of 20 GHz, each. EWG-OTA
TD(17)04012 Factor Graph Based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping using Multipath Channel Information Erik Leitinger, Florian Meyer, Fredrik Tufvesson, and Klaus Witrisal Radio-based localization has the potential to provide centimeter-level position information. In this paper we apply joint probabilistic data association to multipath-assisted simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) for this purpose. In multipathassisted localization, position-related information in multipath components (MPCs) is exploited to increase the accuracy and robustness of indoor tracking. Based on a recently introduced loopy belief propagation multipath-assisted localization scheme that performs probabilistic data association jointly with agent state estimation, we build a method for SLAM without using apriori known environment maps. The proposed method is highly accurate and robust in localizing a mobile agent while building up an environment feature map. It scales well in all relevant systems parameters and has a very low computational complexity. EWG-LT
TD(17)04013 Effect of network architecture on power consumption in mobile radio systems Claudia Carciofi, Paolo Grazioso, Francesco Matera The paper aims at proposing a flexible methodology to assess how architectural choices affect the overall power consumption in 4G and 5G mobile networks, taking into account both the Radio Access Network and the backhaul and fronthaul segments. The proposed methodology has been applied to identify optimal network configurations to guarantee high energy efficiency in realistic scenarios. The study was performed by means of a Montecarlo simulation tool considering power consumption measurements performed in a real wired access network. Results show that the adoption of proper Heterogeneous Network (HetNet) architectures operating at different bands greatly improves both capacity and energy efficiency. Saturation effects have been also investigated as increasing network densification beyond a certain threshold does not provide additional benefits. DWG2, EWG-RA
TD(17)04014 Health applications in crowdsensing environment Dragana Bajic, Tamara Skoric Personalised monitoring in health applications has been recognised as part of the mobile crowdsensing concept, where subjects equipped with sensors extract information and share them for personal or common benefit. The recorded data present a golden mine for the research community. However, the sensing devices are mobile, battery operated, self-attached, with restricted power and processor strength, implying limited transmission resources as well. For this reason crowdsensing imposes the use of local, therefore unsupervised, analytical methods, but such an approach is incompatible with analytical tools traditionally implemented in biomedical analysis: these tools require stationary and artefact-free data that cannot be assured in exercising subjects with devices attached without a professional aid. This paper discusses the problems, proposing an alternative solution in creating computationally efficient procedures for unsupervised processing in environments where energy and processor resources are limited. SEWG-IoT
TD(17)04015 Performance Analysis of a Repetition Redundancy HARQ Algorithm with Decode-Forward Two-Hop Relaying over Rayleigh Channels Agota Antal, Vasile Bota The relay-assisted Hybrid ARQ (CHARQ) technique is regarded as a mean of further improving the coverage and reliability performance of future wireless networks. Most of the algorithms implementing this approach use the source-destination link, besides the source-relay and relay-destinations links, and employ either Chase combining or space-time coding, thus requiring more resource-consuming processing at destination for synchronization and decoding the transmitted data. This paper studies the reliability, spectral efficiency and delay performance of a Repetition Redundancy CHARQ algorithm that does not use the direct source-destination link, thus requiring less processing and simpler synchronization at destination. The analysis is made over block-faded Rayleigh channels using decode&forward relaying and practical modulation and channel code. The results show that the CHARQ algorithm provides smaller block-error rate (BLER) and ensures a target BLER and smaller delay at low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and/or ensures BLERt at SNRSD much smaller than the non-cooperative HARQ algorithm that uses only the source-destination link, at the expense of smaller spectral efficiency. DWG2
TD(17)04016 Novel adaptive method for data streams allocation based on the estimate of radio channel parameters in heterogeneous WBAN network Krzysztof K. Cwalina, Sławomir J. Ambroziak, Jacek Stefański, Jarosław Sadowski The new adaptive method for data streams allocation in heterogeneous Wireless Body Area Networks and measurement equipment is presented. The results obtained using the developed method compared with the selected algorithms likely to be used in those networks. An efficiency use of available resource increase has been shown regardless of the montage location of the mobile node on the human body. SEWG-IoT
TD(17)04017 Massive MIMO Performance – TDD Versus FDD: What Do Measurements Say? Jose Flordelis, Fredrik Rusek, Fredrik Tufvesson, Erik G. Larsson, and Ove Edfors Downlink beamforming in Massive MIMO either relies on uplink pilot measurements – exploiting reciprocity and TDD operation, or on the use of a predetermined grid of beams with user equipments reporting their preferred beams, mostly in FDD operation. Massive MIMO in its originally conceived form uses the first strategy, with uplink pilots, whereas there is currently significant commercial interest in the second, grid-of-beams. It has been analytically shown that in isotropic scattering (independent Rayleigh fading) the first approach outperforms the second. Nevertheless there remains controversy regarding their relative performance in practice. In this contribution, the performances of these two strategies are compared using measured channel data at 2.6 GHz. DWG1
TD(17)04018 Performance Evaluation of the Dynamic Trajectory Design for an Unmanned Aerial Base Station in a Single Frequency Network Margot Deruyck, Alberto Marri, Silvia Mignardi, Luc Martens, Wout Joseph, Roberto Verdone Using an Unmanned Aerial Base Station (UABS) i.e., a base station carried by a UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) or drone, is a promising approach to offer coverage and capacity to those users that are not being served by the base stations of the terrestrial network. In this paper, we propose an on-the-go design of the drone’s trajectory to account for the quickly varying user traffic and pattern. This approach is based on the identification of clusters made of nearby users to be served. The decision on which cluster to visit next by the UABS depends on a cost-function considering the distance to the next cluster, the user density and spread in the cluster, and the direction compared to the previously visited cluster. Furthermore, we propose a radio resource assignment algorithm to minimize the interference from the UABS to the terrestrial network when both are operating in the same frequency band. The potential improvements in terms of network capacity (sum throughput) and user satisfaction are estimated in this study. DWG3
TD(17)04019 Implementation of high-speed data transmission technological demonstrator using software defined radio technology Krzysztof K. Cwalina, Paweł T. Kosz, Piotr Rajchowski, Jarosław Sadowski, Jacek Stefański In the article the implementation of a high-speed data transmission technological demonstrator using software defined radio technology is presented. A system architecture design including assymetric framing transmission organization, which differ from the ones used in cellular systems is described. The construction of a technological demonstrator consisting of a management unit, radio unit and a programmable multithreaded software performing all the protocol and system functions is shown. EWG-IoT
TD(17)04020 Evolutionary Design of a Dual Band E-shaped Patch Antenna for 5G Mobile Communications S.K. Goudos, A. Tsiflikiotis, D. Babas, K. Siakavara, F. Mira, C. Kalialakis, G.K. Karagiannidis, M. Deruyck, D. Plets, W. Joseph Fifth generation (5G) wireless technology is a promising solution for multi-Gbps data rates in future mobile communications. The new devices are expected to operate at millimeter wave frequencies. To address the 5G requirements novel antennas have to be developed. In this paper the Teaching-Learning-Optimization (TLBO) algorithm is applied in order to design a dual-band E-shaped patch antenna. The geometrical parameters of the aperture-coupled antenna are the inputs of the optimization algorithm. The method gives acceptable design solutions achieving simultaneously S11 minimization and low VSWR at the frequencies of interest (25GHz and 37GHz). DWG2
TD(17)04021 Towards an ITU channel model for 5G S. Salous The World Radiocommunications Conference in 2015 (WRC15) identified a number of frequency bands in the range 24-86 GHz for possible future allocation for 5G. To this end different research groups and administrations performed radio propagation measurements towards a site general channel model. In the UK Durham University carried out such measurements in a typical suburban environment for both over the rooftop and below the rooftop for both line of sight and non-line of sight scenarios. Some of these measurements were combined with measurements from other administrations for a site general path loss model and the model was approved in the Study Group 3 meeting of the ITU in March 2017. Other parameters such as r.m.s delay spread and cross polar discrimination were also submitted and approved. The TD gives an overview of the UK input into the Study Group 3 and the relevant ITU-R recommendations. DWG1
TD(17)04022 Defining and Surveying Wireless Link and Network Virtualization Jonathan van de Belt, Hamed Ahmadi, Linda E. Doyle Virtualization is a topic of great interest in the area of mobile and wireless communication systems. However the term virtualization is used in an inexact manner which makes it difficult to compare and contrast work that has been carried out to date. The purpose of this paper is twofold. In the first place, the paper develops a formal theory for defining virtualization. In the second instance, this theory is used as a way of surveying a body of work in the field of wireless link and network virtualization. The formal theory provides a means for distinguishing work that should be classed as resource allocation as distinct from virtualization. It also facilitates a further classification of the representation level at which the virtualization occurs, which makes comparison of work more meaningful. The paper provides a comprehensive survey and highlights gaps in the research that make for fruitful future work. DWG3
TD(17)04023 Adaptive Energy Detection Threshold in Body Area Networks Martina Barbi, Kamran Sayrafian, Mehdi Alasti IEEE 802.15.6 is a radio interface standard for wireless connectivity of wearable and implantable sensors located inside or in close proximity to the human body (i.e. a Body Area Network). Medical applications requirements impose stringent constraints on the reliability, and quality of service (QoS) in these networks. Radio interference from other co-located BANs or nearby devices that share the same spectrum could greatly impact the data link reliability in these networks. The CSMA/CA MAC protocol as outlined in the IEEE 802.15.6 BAN standard involves the use of an Energy Detection (ED) threshold to determine the status of the transmission channel i.e. idle versus busy. Previously, we had shown that the use of such static thresholds negatively impacts the performance of the system composed of multiple co-located BANs, leading to possible starvation or unfair treatment for several nodes. This technical document proposes adaptive schemes that can be used to adjust the ED threshold in the transmitting nodes of a BAN. The objective is to fairly allow channel access to all nodes regardless of the level of interference that they are experiencing. Simulation results indicate benefits of the proposed strategy and demonstrate improvement in the overall performance. SEWG-IoT
TD(17)04024 Geometry-based modelling of self-interference channels for outdoor scenarios Sathya N. Venkatasubramanian, Chunqing Zhang, Leo Laughlin, Katsuyuki Haneda and Mark A. Beach In-band full-duplex (IBFD) transmission has the potential to nearly double the throughput by improving the spectral efficiency. The main bottleneck is the self-interference (SI) at the transceiver due its own transmission, which can suppress the desired signal. Compact on-frequency repeaters are suitable candidates for initial implementation of IBFD, where, the design and evaluation of SI cancellation techniques require realistic SI channel models. In this article, we characterise measured MIMO SI channels as a two-dimensional site-specific geometry- based stochastic channel model (GSCM), including smooth walls causing specular reflections, diffuse scatterers along the smooth walls, and mobile scatterers like pedestrians and vehicles. The model provides delay, angular and polarimetric characteristics of the MIMO SI channels, and is validated by comparing the measured and simulated channels in delay, Doppler and spatial domains. DWG1
TD(17)04025 On-Site Permittivity Estimation at 60 GHz through
Scatterer Identification in the Point Cloud
Usman Tahir Virk, Sinh Le Hong Nguyen, Katsuyuki Haneda, and Jean-Frederic Wagen Site-specific radio propagation simulations for coverage analysis have always been a key research area. However, the quality of these simulations relies heavily on the accuracy of environment description and electrical properties of materials. This paper proposes a novel generic method for on-site permittivity estimation through scatterer identification in a point cloud description of the environment. The method is based on ray-tracing in the point cloud, which identifies the scatterer and estimates their permittivity by applying the inverse reflection problem. The method was experimentally verified by millimeter radio channel measurements at 60GHz in a large empty and indoor environment. The estimated permittivity values were visualized as a 3D permittivity map. Furthermore, scatterer materials were classified according to their mean permittivities as well as validated by physical material evidence and ITU recommendation. It was demonstrated that a permittivity database could be produced on-site for accurate radio wave propagation simulations without the need for isolated measurements of composite materials in an anechoic chamber or in-situ measurements in built environments. DWG1
TD(17)04026 Performance improvement of mmWave communications through macrodiversity in outdoor scenario Aleksandra Lopusina, Enis Kocan, Milica Pejanovic-Djurisic mmWave communications suffer from great path-loss and link outages due to blocking caused by different obstacles, including user’s body. Thus, we analyze the efficiency of macrodiversity (MD) implementation for coping with these deteriorating effects in outdoor scenario. Two MD schemes are considered, based on known channel quality indicators (CQIs). The first one assumes that MS always communicates with base station (BS) with the best CQI, while the second proposed MD scheme assumes that MS switches to another BS if its CQI is 2 levels above the current one. Using mmWave module in the ns-3 simulator, we model three real-case scenarios for downlink (DL) communications at 28GHz and 73GHz bands, in outdoor environment. The obtained results for data rate clearly show that implementation of the proposed MD schemes leads towards significant performance improvement of mmWave cellular systems. EWG-RA
TD(17)04027 Hybrid mode MIMO terminal antenna with low correlation and enhanced bandwidth Hui Li, Buon Kiong Lau Despite recent progress in designing MIMO terminal antennas, it remains a significant challenge to achieve practical designs with low correlation and high total efficiency, especially for frequency bands below 1 GHz. In this work, we propose a new dual-band dual-element MIMO antenna with low correlation, partly based on a previous design. Based on characteristic mode analysis, two quasi-orthogonal hybrid modes were excited by two antenna ports. To enhance the bandwidth of the antenna ports at the center frequency of 0.9 GHz to 100 MHz, a slot was edged in the chassis. Within the operating band, the isolation between two antenna ports is over 10 dB, and the envelope correlation coefficient is below 0.1 DWG1
TD(17)04028 Characteristic mode based MIMO terminal antenna design with user proximity Zachary Miers, Buon Kiong Lau Analyzing structures with dielectrics using the Theory of Characteristic Modes has been problematic, due to several limitations in the classical theory. Recently, new methods have emerged to facilitate such an analysis. Herein, we applied a postprocessing method to the surface integral formulation to extract the characteristic modes of a lossy structure consisting of a terminal chassis held in a user hand. These modes were then individually analyzed and a subset was chosen to design a MIMO antenna with low correlation as well as low hand-induced losses. DWG1
TD(17)04029 Totally Connected Healthcare with TVWS Konstantinos KATZIS, Richard W. JONES and Georgios DESPOTOU Recent technological advances in electronics, wireless communications and low cost medical sensors generated a plethora of Wearable Medical Devices (WMDs), thus setting the stage for an entirely new concept of always connected healthcare. 5G networks can probably provide connectivity to WMDs but this will come at a cost to the clients for the service provided. This contribution reviews how 5G can address all these devices and presents a novel architecture employing White Space Devices (WSD), IEEE 802.22 (WiFar) standard to provide seamless connectivity taking advantage of the freely available TV White Spaces (TVWS). SEWG-IoT
TD(17)04030 Low Complexity Scheduling and Beamforming in Massive MIMO Systems with COST
2100 Channel Model
Manijeh Bashar, Alister Burr and Kanapathipillai Cumanan Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques have been mostly investigated with independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh channel and Massive MIMO techniques with realistic channel models are required. Hence, a realistic COST 2100 channel model is considered in the present paper. Most MIMO techniques such as user scheduling, precoding design and optimization algorithms require channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT) which in the Massive MIMO case is very difficult to obtain in perfect form. The paper considers the time division duplexing (TDD) mode. The base station (BS) estimates channel of all users in the uplink and exploits the estimated channel for downlink transmission. However, the complexity of the minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimator is cubic with the size of the covariance matrix of the channel. Hence, updating CSIT in every time-slot of data transmission is one of the main challenges in large MIMO systems. In this paper, we suppose that the BS does not need to estimate the channels of the users, and selects users and design the beamforming matrix based only on the channel correlation matrix. We propose a new correlation-based user scheduling and precoding design and investigate the degrading effect of no CSI estimation at the base station (BS) on the average throughput of the system. Analysis and simulation results show that while the system throughput slightly decreases due to the absence of CSIT, the complexity of the system is reduced significantly. Moreover, the paper considers large MIMO simplifications and provides a quite tight approximations for the system throughput. Analysis and simulation results show throughput superiority of the proposed scheme over the graph-based scheme in [\ref{1}]. DWG2
TD(17)04031 Quantisation, Compression and Network Coding in Cloud-RAN and Cell-free Massive MIMO Alister Burr and Qinhui Huang We consider an ultra-dense wireless access network in which multiple sources communicate with multiple access points which in turn quantise and compress the received signals and forward then via some fronthaul network to a central processing unit: this is equivalent to the uplink architecture of both Cloud-RAN and so-called “cell-free” massive MIMO. We discuss the loss of information at the relays due to the quantization process, and the trade-off between this loss and the load on the fronthaul network. We then consider approaches inspired by Wyner-Ziv distributed compression and compute-and-forward in order to improve this trade-off, and explore the relationship between these approaches. DWG2
TD(17)04032 Robust Phase-Based Positioning Using Massive MIMO With Limited Bandwidth Xuhong Li, Kenneth Batstone, Kalle Åström, Magnus Oskarsson, Carl Gustafson, Fredrik Tufvesson This paper presents a robust phase-based positioning framework using Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system. The phase-based distance estimates of multipath propagation components (MPCs) together with other parameters are tracked with an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), the state dimension of which varies with the birth-death processes of paths. The Joint Maximum Likelihood Estimation algorithm (RIMAX) and the modeling of dense multipath component (DMC) in the framework further enhance the quality of parameter tracking by providing accurate initial state and the underlying noise covariance. The tracked MPCs are fed into a time-of-arrival (TOA) self-calibration positioning algorithm for trajectory estimation. Throughout the positioning process, no prior knowledge of the surrounding environment is needed. The performance is evaluated with the measurement of a “Lund”-word movement, which was performed in a sports hall with an antenna array with 128 ports as the base station using a standard cellular bandwidth of 40 MHz. The results prove that the proposed framework provides accurate MPC tracking results and outstanding positioning performance even with limited bandwidth. In summary, the proposed framework is a promising high-resolution radio-based positioning solution for current and next generation cellular systems. EWG-LT
TD(17)04033 Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Massive MIMO Fingerprint-Based Positioning Joao Vieira, Erik Leitinger, Muris Sarajlic, Xuhong Li, Fredrik Tufvesson This paperprovidesaninitialinvestigationon the applicationofconvolutionalneuralnetworks(CNNs)for fingerprint-basedpositioningusingmeasuredmassiveMIMO
channels. Whenrepresentedinappropriatedomains,measured massiveMIMOchannelshaveasparsestructurewhichcan be efficientlylearnedbyCNNsforpositioningpurposes.The positioning capabilitiesofCNNstendtogeneralizewelltomost propagationscenariosthankstotheirinherentfeaturelearning abilities. Weevaluatethepositioningaccuracyofstate-of-the-art CNNs withchannelfingerprintsgeneratedfromachannelmodel with arichclusteredstructure:theCOST2100channelmodel. WefindthatmoderatelydeepCNNscanachievefractional- wavelengthpositioningaccuracies,providedthatanenough representativedatasetisavailablefortraining. Index Terms—Deep Learning,ConvolutionalNeuralNetworks, MassiveMIMO,Fingerprint,Positioning,Localization.
TD(17)04034 Joint Compression and Feedback of CSI in Correlated multiuser MISO Channels Maha ALODEH; Symeon CHATZINOTAS; Bjorn OTTERSTEN The potential gains of multiple antennas in wireless systems can be limited by the channel state information imperfections. In this context, this paper tackles the feedback in multiuser correlated multiple input single output (MU-MISO). We propose a framework to feedback the minimum number of bits without performance degradation. This framework is based on decorrelating the channel state information by compression and then quantize the compressed (CSI) and feedback it to the base station (BS). We characterize the rate loss resulted from the proposed framework. An upper bound on the rate loss is derived in terms of the amount of feedback and the statistics of the channel. Based on this characterization, we propose am adaptive bit allocation algorithm that takes into the account the channel statistics to reduce the rate loss induced by the quantization. Moreover, in order to maintain a constant rate loss with respect to the perfect CSIT case, it is shown that the number of feedback bits should scale linearly with the SNR (in dB) and to the rank of the user transmit correlation matrix. We validate the proposed framework by Monte-carlo simulations. DWG2
TD(17)04035 Internet-of-Animals: wireless communication and location tracking David Plets, Jens Trogh, Said Benaissa, Wout Joseph, Luc Martens In order to remain competitive, farmers have to increase their herd sizes. However, this makes it increasingly difficult to manually follow-up the health status of each individual animal. Lately, on-body animal sensors have been deployed to collect health data, such as temperature, movement, lying time, traveled distance,… An accurate knowledge of this information allows animal scientists to devise algorithms that can determine health anomalies, even at an early stage. E.g., for dairy cows, such systems can be used to detect lameness, calving times, oestrus,… An accurate and reliable wireless communication on the body (from sensor to collar hub) and off the body (from collar hub to backend in barn) is indispensable for a successful operation. This presentation will characterize the cow’s on-body channel and the off-body channel both outdoor and in different barns. Further, preliminary results will be shown on the collection of cow location data, using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) and Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) technologies. DWG1, DWG2, EWG-LT,SEWG-IoT
TD(17)04036 Indicative Measurements of mmWave Building Penetration and Exploitation of Gaps T. W. C. Brown, R. Xie, P. Chambers Indicative measurements of first tests undertaken of mmWave penetration through infra red reflector glass ranging from 11GHz to 67GHz are presented where penetration through the same window pane is compared over frequency. Substantial loss in excess of 30dB is observed and also consideration is given to how the loss is accommodated where there is reliance either on the diffraction around the window edge or the reflection off the far end of the window in a real small cell access scenario. Measurements also indicate the benefit of exploiting gaps in building infrastructure to substantially improve building penetration. DWG1
TD(17)04037 Preliminary evaluation of signal to interference and noise characterisation in massive MIMO Tim Brown, Martin Hudlicka, David Humphreys, Tian Hong Loh In 5G communication systems, multiple devices employing Massive MIMO will be vulnerable to co-channel interference where the base station is maintaining insufficiently orthogonal links with mobile terminals. As such a signal to interference and noise ratio will result due to cases where channels to mobile terminals are correlated and lacking complete orthogonality. Measurement results from an initial massive MIMO measurement campaign at 2.4GHz are shown and initial results indicating the feasibility of using bit error rate to evaluate the signal to interference and noise ratio at a device that does not know where its interferer sources are unknown is shown. EWG-OTA
TD(17)04038 Evaluating the Impact of Network Layer Attacks in WSNs and the IoT Christiana ioannou and Vasos Vassiliou Security threats are present in WSNs and the IoT and aim to destruct, manipulate the network, or eavesdrop network traffic for malicious intent. The first line of defense is to prevent attacks, usually by applying cryptography, the second line of defense is detecting the presence of the attack within the network, and the third is stopping or recovering quickly from the attack. In this work we deal with the detection phase and we describe a node and network monitoring tool and examine the impact of routing layer attacks in WSN/IoT networks in an effort to build better intrusion detection systems (IDS). IDSs base their detection decision on the knowledge gained from known attacks. The attacks’ characteristics and methods to manipulate the network are analysed and used to drive recovery mechanisms. In this work we describe our implementation of a lightweight run-time monitoring tool, called RMT, developed for operation in Contiki O/S. This tool can be customized to monitor parameters of interest and execute instructions at runtime. We used this tool to investigated the impact of the attacks as “seen” from the Sink node and the victim node. We show that the attacks can have an effect on all network layers of the victim node and the degree of impact depends on many factors, including the topology of WSN/IoT and the distance from the Sink. EWG-IoT
TD(17)04039 Spatially Consistent LOS/NLOS State Model for Statistical Monte Carlo Simulations Rimvydas Aleksiejunas Understanding of line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight (LOS/NLOS) visibility conditions is important for radio wave propagation modeling when selecting empirical path loss model. For Monte Carlo statistical simulations a random generator of visibility states can be designed according to a given spatial probability density. In the current paper, a statistical LOS state model is derived based on ITU-R and 3GPP 3D LOS probability models suitable for 5G channel simulations. The generic exponential LOS probability model is improved by dividing the area into LOS and NLOS zones depending on the building density. The accuracy of LOS probability model has been tested against visibility predictions obtained from the digital building data over Manhattan city area. DWG1
TD(17)04040 Utilizing Mobile Nodes for Network Recovery in Wireless Sensor Networks Natalie Temene, Charalambos Sergiou, Vasos Vassiliou, and Chryssis Georgiou In this work we are utilizing mobile nodes to control and alleviate congestion and other impairments in WSNs. In particular we present Mobile-CC, a mechanism that can run above existing congestion control algorithms and employ mobile nodes in order to either create locallysignificant alternative paths towards the sink or create completely individual/direct paths of mobile nodes to the sink. Simulation results show that the solution can significantly contribute in the alleviation of congestion in WSNs. The same technique can be used to recover from other types of network faults as well. EWG-IoT
TD(17)04041 Carrier Frequency-offset Compensation by Inter-carrier Symbol Precoding at the Transmitter in OFDM Transmissions Razvan Onica, Vasile Bota The channel carrier frequency offset is one of the major sources of Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI) in OFDM transmissions. Assuming that the carrier frequency offset is known at least at the transmitting end and that it has low variability on links that involve quasi-static terminals, the paper analyzes the ICI reduction provided by an inter-carrier QAM symbol precoding at the transmitter. The performance metrics used are the bit-error probability (BER) vs. the signal over noise plus interference ratio (SINR) and the average power of ICI. The paper studies the impact of the frequency offset magnitude and number of neighbouring subcarriers used in precoding upon the BER performance, for different values of the IFFT-FFT dimension N and for the 4, 16 and 64 QAM modulations. The results obtained show that the BER decrease is significant especially for high values of N and for 4 and 16 QAM and that o moderate number of adjacent subcarriers used for precoding proves to be a reasonable tradeoff between BER performance and the amount of processing involved. The carrier frequency offset compensation at the transmitter also simplifies the synchronization and decreases the processing in the receiver. DWG2
TD(17)04042 Dynamic Channel Model with Overhead Line Poles for High-Speed Railway Communications Lai Zhou, Zhi Yang, Fengyu Luan, Andreas F. Molisch, Fredrik Tufvesson, Shidong Zhou In order to develop and analyze reliable communications links in high speed railway (HSR) systems, accurate models for the propagation channel are required. The radio channel properties in HSR scenarios are different from those in cellular scenarios not only due to the high velocity, but also the special construction elements and the type of surroundings along the train lines. This paper focuses on the influence of overhead line poles along the railway on the HSR communication channel. We performed a measurement campaign at a carrier frequency of 2.4GHz on the Guangzhou-Shenzhen dedicated high-speed train line in China. The uncapped tubular poles affects the line of sight (LOS) communication path periodically, and also act as static and periodic scatterers along railway lines. Based on the measurement result we propose a dynamic model considering periodic poles for HSR communication. DWG1
TD(17)04043 A motion model for wearable antennas in BANs Kenan Turbic, Luis M. Correia, Marko Beko This paper presents a motion model for wearable antennas in body area networks, considering 14 different on-body antenna placements for walking and running motions of the user. Both position and orientation of the antenna are modelled, where the former is represented by a position vector and the latter by a sequence of the three axis rotation angles. The forward motion component in the antenna position is represented by a linear model, whereas the periodic changes in both position and orientation are modelled using the Fourier series, with the number of harmonics chosen depending on the user’s motion and the on-body antenna placement. The motion capture data is used to estimate the model parameters, where up to two and typically only one harmonic is sufficient to keep the maximum absolute error below 2.5 cm for position and below 8 degrees for orientation angles. The standard deviation of the error is below 1 cm for the former and below 2.95 degrees for the latter, in all considered cases. DWG1, SEWG-IoT
TD(17)04044 Reduced Rank Based Joint DoA Estimation with Mutual Coupling in
Massive MIMO Networks
Amit Kachroo and M. Kemal Ozdemir As we move towards 5G implementation, it becomes very important to study massive MIMO systems inside out and work upon the challenges posed by it. In this work, a low computation complexity based DoA estimation with unknown mutual coupling for massive MIMO in 5G is proposed. Our work extends the use of joint iterative optimization algorithm proposed by earlier studies with the unique difference being that it assumes that the mutual coupling is also present and requires to be calibrated. It is shown that that the computation complexity of the proposed method is O(M2 + (180 EWG-OTA
TD(17)04045 Frequency Dependency Analysis of SHF band Directional Propagation Channel in Indoor Environments Kentaro Saito, Panawit Hanpinitsak, Jun-ichi Takada, Wei Fan, Gert F. Pedersen In the 5G system, the mm-wave band radio is planned to be utilized for the mobile communication. Although it is known that the radio propagation characteristics such as scattering and diffraction in the mm-wave band are quite different from lower frequency bands, the influence to the directional channel has not been clarified yet. We conducted the channel measurements by utilizing the virtual array method in 3GHz, 10GHz, and 28GHz band in the same Tx and Rx positions, and investigated the delay and directional characteristics of the propagation channels. DWG1
TD(17)04046 Channel Models, Requirements and Test Methods for 3GPP NR Moray Rumney, Pekka Kyosti, Aki hekkala The work to develop the first radio requirements for 3GPP NR 6 – 40 GHz is now well underway with an accelerate deadline of Dec 2017 to finish the non-standalone version (LTE + mmWave second carrier). However, there remain many open issues with regards to how to apply the system level channel models in TR 38.901 to extract the link level models required to develop UE and BS radio requirements. this paper will outline current progress and open issues with a view to motivating future research within IRACON towards meeting the 3GPP goals. DWG1, EWG-OTA, EWG-RA
TD(17)04047 A Model of Path Arrival Rate for In-Room Radio Channels with Directive Antennas Troels Pedersen We analyze the path arrival rate for an inroom radio channel with directive antennas. The impulse response of this channel exhibits a transition from early separate components followed by a diffuse reverberation tail. Under the assumption that the transmitter’s (or receiver’s) position and orientation are picked uniformly at random we derive an exact expression of the mean arrival rate for a rectangular room predicted by the mirror source theory. The rate is quadratic in delay, inversely proportional to the room volume, and proportional to the product of beam coverage fractions of the transmitter and receiver antennas. Making use of the exact formula, we characterize the onset of the diffuse tail by defining a “mixing time” as the point in time where the arrival rate exceeds one component per transmit pulse duration. We also give an approximation for the powerdelay spectrum. It turns out that the power-delay spectrum is unaffected by the antenna directivity. However, Monte Carlo simulations show that antenna directivity does indeed play an important role for the distribution of instantaneous mean delay and rms delay spread. DWG1
TD(17)04048 Predicting Reverberant Room-to-Room Radio Channel by Using Graphs and Rays in Combination Yang Miao, Troels Pedersen, Mingming Gan, Evgenii Vinogradov, and Claude Oestges This paper proposes a hybrid modeling approach for prediction of the room-to-room radio propagation channel. The model combines ray tracing with propagation graph. The propagation graph vertices are obtained at each room by ray tracing with the assumption that the receive antenna (or transmit antenna) virtually locates on the surface of the separating wall between two rooms. Rays transmitting from one room to the other through the separating wall are deterministically calculated by Snell’s law of refraction. The proposed approach is validated by being applied to the real-world scenario and being compared with the measured data. The results show that the proposed modeling works with the simplest parameter settings, i.e. assuming no propagation from room containing receive antenna to room containing transmit antenna, ray tracing applied separately in each room only involves mechanism of line-of-sight and first order specular reflection. DWG1
TD(17)04049 A Simulation Framework for Multiple Terminal Antennas in Massive MIMO Systems Evaluated Against Measurements Erik L. Bengtsson, Peter C. Karlsson, Fredrik Tufvesson, Fredrik Rusek, Steffen Malkowsky, Ove Edfors The recent interest on massive MIMO has spurred intensive work on massive MIMO channel modeling in contemporary literature. However, so far, current models fail to take the characteristics of terminal antennas into account. For two sets of suggested terminal antenna patterns, there is no massive MIMO channel model available that can predict which is the better of the two. In this paper we provide a simulation framework that resolves this. We evaluate antennas integrated into a Sony Xperia handset for frequencies < 6 GHz since this part of spectrum is identified for the 5G new radio standard by 3GPP. The simulation results are compared with the measured performance of the prototype and Lund University’s massive MIMO testbed under the same loading conditions. Expressions are derived for comparison of the gain obtained from the different diversity schemes computed from measured far-field antenna patterns. We conclude that the simulation framework yields results close to the measured ones and that the framework can be used for antenna evaluation for terminals in a practical precoded massive MIMO system. DWG1, EWG-OTA
TD(17)04050 NLOS Channel Detection with Multilayer Perceptron in Low-Rate Personal Area Networks for Indoor Localization Accuracy Improvement Klemen Bregar, Andrej Hrovat, Mihael Mohorčič, Tomaž Javornik Indoor localization takes an important part in several areas. It enables indoor navigation for visitors, inventory monitoring, wireless network optimization etc. Among different existing indoor localization approaches the scheme which defines distances via measuring time of flight of the wireless packets and combines them with multilateration is one of the most promising in terms of accuracy and simplicity. The main drawbacks of the multilateration positioning are its sensitivity to noisy measurements, non-line-of-sight (NLOS) signal path effect and positioning anchors fixed in straight line. To mitigate accuracy degradation NLOS ranges should be effectively detected and discarded. In this paper we propose accurate classifier for NLOS signal detection with multilayer perceptron (MLP). EWG-LT
TD(17)04051 On Long-term MIMO Phase Measurement of 2×2 Microwave LOS-MIMO Systems Lei Bao, Bengt-Erik Olsson, Karl Rundstedt This paper presents channel measurement methods applied to spatially-separated 2×2 microwave Line-of-Sight Multi-Input Multi-Output (LOS-MIMO) systems, and some preliminary results from four test links in Gothenburg, Sweden. The main focus of the measurement series is to study channel conditions and the effects of rain and clear-air fading. First, we address the key performance measures used in the trials. In particular we introduce the MIMO phase difference as an additional channel metric to the received power. The MIMO phase difference is mainly determined by antenna positions, ground effects and atmospheric variations. The relation between antenna positions and channel conditions was addressed in a number of earlier works, while the atmospheric impact and the resulting link availability are rarely studied. Second, we present the test links, operating on 8GHz and 32GHz, and discuss the preliminary results from the long-term measurement campaign. Analysis reveals that fluctuation of the phase difference and the channel condition number is likely due to abnormal atmospheric propagation which can be modelled using a two-ray reflection model. Meanwhile, rain attenuation is strongly correlated between MIMO sub-channels and its contribution to the long-term statistics of power loss is very close to the Single-Input Single-Output (SISO) case. DWG1
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TD(17)04054 Angular Resolved Pathloss Measurements in a US Suburban Scenario at 28 GHz Christina Larsson, Bengt-Erik Olsson, Martin Johansson, Henrik Asplund This paper presents angular resolved path loss measurements conducted along the streets in a typical US suburban scenario at 28 GHz. It was observed that all Rx location up to 150 meters from the Tx had a detectable signal with path loss under 145 dB and all Rx location up to 200 meters had a detectable signal with path loss under 155 dB. It was also concluded that the LOS direction was the clearly doming peak power direction even for locations with over 30 dB excess loss. The angular spread was unexpectedly low, below 10 degrees for half of the locations, which indicate only one or very few closely spaced dominating paths. Finally, the impact of the AP height on the coverage was investigated and for this scenario very little improvements could be noticed increasing the access point height from 6 to 9 or 15 meters. This is likely due to the height of the trees often exceeding 15 m in the measured scenario. DWG1
TD(17)04055 Frequency-Dependence of Channel Delay Spread in an Outdoor Environment Cheikh A. L. Diakhate, Jean-Marc Conrat, Jean-Christophe Cousin, Alain Sibille Millimeter-Wave (mmW) communication systems, capable of achieving high data rates thanks to the large bandwidth available in this frequency range, are a promising 5G technology. Studies in this paper investigate the radio propagation channel at 3, 17 and 60 GHz in an Outdoor environment. Measurements were conducted using a wideband channel sounder to derive channel delay spread (DS). Results do not indicate a clear trend on the behavior of the DS with regards to the frequency. This disagrees in some way with the 3GPP TR 38.900 channel model findings which support a clear decreasing trend of this parameter as the frequency increases. At 60 GHz, the channel DS was computed with and without compensation of atmospheric oxygen absorption. It was found that this phenomenon has minor impact on the measurement results. Its compensation does not change the main conclusions. DWG1
TD(17)04056 Pilot Placement for Power-Efficient Uplink Positioning in 5G Vehicular Networks José A. del Peral-Rosado, M. Angélica Barreto-Arboleda, Francesca Zanier, Massimo Crisci, Gonzalo Seco-Granados and José A. López-Salcedo This paper studies the pilot placement for power-efficient uplink positioning within future fifth generation (5G) enhanced vehicle to everything (eV2X) networks. The optimal pilot allocation of multicarrier signals may help to fulfil the stringent requirements, in terms of vehicle position accuracy and latency, within vehicular applications, such as autonomous driving. Contiguous and non-contiguous pilot placements in the frequency domain are assessed, by considering the tradeoff between minimum Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) and peak-toaverage power ratio (PAPR), among other pilot design criteria. Contiguous placement of pilots with a high separation between subcarriers is a candidate pattern to fulfil the design criteria within future vehicular networks. EWG-LT
TD(17)04057 Measurement and Analysis of LTE Coverage for Vehicular Use Cases in Live Networks Taulant Berisha, Gerald Artner, Bujar Krasniqi, Besnik Duriqi, Marigona Muçaj, Sadri Berisha, Philipp Svoboda, Christoph F. Mecklenbräuker We conducted drive test measurements in a live LTE 1800 MHz network to evaluate mobile network performance of User Equipments (UEs) located inside and outside a pickup truck. The measurement campaign is performed in Kosovo, starting from Prishtina to the north-eastern Albanian border. Knowledge of base station locations and cell
load is made available from service provider during the measurements. This is crucial to determine whether the bit rate is limited by network availability, cell load, or propagation effects. To provide reliable in-vehicle coverage, it is necessary to determine the penetration loss. In this paper, we present the first results and show the variation of penetration loss up to 10.58 dB.
TD(17)04058 In-body Communication between Mobile Proteins using FRET Jakub Kmiecik, Pawel Kulakowski, Krzysztof Wojcik, Andrzej Jajszczyk A practical, biologically motivated case of protein complexes (immunoglobulin G and FcRII receptors) moving on the surface of leukocyte cells, that are common parts of an immunological system, is investigated. These proteins are considered as in-body nanomachines creating a large nanonetwork. Accurate molecular models of the proteins and the fluorophores which act as their nanoantennas are used to simulate the communication between the nanomachines when they are close to each other. The theory of diffusion-based Brownian motion is applied to model movements of the proteins. It is assumed that fluorophore molecules send and receive signals using the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer. The probability of the efficient signal transfer, the respective bit error rate, and the communication channel capacity are calculated and discussed. DWG1, SEWG-IoT
TD(17)04059 Signal-to-Noise Ratio Measurements and Statistical Characterization in Gen2 RFID Zoran Blažević, Petar Šolić, Maja Škiljo, Maja Stella, Čedomir Stefanović, Petar Popovski, Gert Frølund Pedersen In this paper, we present measurements of the optimum signal-to-noise ratio distribution recorded by RFID reader based on software radio. The measurements are conducted in an indoor environment while maintaining RFID setup to obtain the best tag responsiveness. The analysis shows that, although non-linear in nature, the RFID system signal-to-noise characterization can be deduced to only one parameter independent on the transmitted power and propagation environment, the scale parameter of lognormal distribution. The obtained characterization can be used to improve design of RFID access protocols, as well as to improve RFID localization techniques. DWG1, EWG-IoT, EWG-RA
TD(17)04060 Sectored MPAC OTA setup for testing of mm-wave devices Pekka Kyösti, Lassi Hentilä, Aki Hekkala, Moray Rumney Radiated testing of massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) devices in fading radio channel conditions is expected to be essential in development of the fifth generation (5G) base stations (BS) and user equipment (UE) operating at or close to the millimetre wave (mm-wave) frequencies. In this paper we present a setup upgrading the multi-probe anechoic chamber (MPAC) based system designed originally for 4G UE. The setup is composed by an anechoic chamber and a set of probes (OTA antennas) that can be switched to fading emulators. We describe methods for mapping radio channel models onto the probe configuration and discuss the differences to the former 4G case. EWG-OTA
TD(17)04061 Metrics for evaluating MPAC OTA setups for mm-wave devices Pekka Kyösti, Lassi Hentilä, Aki Hekkala, Moray Rumney Radiated testing of massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) devices in fading radio channel conditions is expected to be essential in development of the fifth generation (5G) base stations (BS) and user equipment (UE) operating at or close to the millimetre wave (mm-wave) frequencies. In this paper we present a setup upgrading the multi-probe anechoic chamber (MPAC) based system designed originally for 4G UE. The setup is composed by an anechoic chamber and a set of probes (OTA antennas) that can be switched to fading emulators. We describe methods for mapping radio channel models onto the probe configuration and discuss the differences to the former 4G case. EWG-OTA
TD(17)04062 Generic system level simulation for advances resources management
solutions: a holistic approach for complex network deployments
Paula Rodríguez, Paula Sarasúa, Luis Diez, Ramón Agüero Despite the huge research effort in the field of LTE networks, there is not a widely accepted methodology to conduct the corresponding analysis. Various approaches and tools are used, each of them having several advantages, but showing some drawbacks as well. One of the most limiting aspects is that they are not usually able to cope with network deployments having a large number of elements, as it would be in dense Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). In other cases, they do not usually pay too much attention to the requirements that different types of services might have, overusing the so-called full-buffer approach. In this paper we introduce the Generic Wireless Network System Modeler (GWNSyM), a flexible framework that allows the deployment of rather complex networks, which can be exploited to analyze a wide range of management techniques, solutions and, even, novel architectural approaches. The tool is validated over a high-dense heterogeneous network deployment, embracing different types of cells. Over such scenario, we assess the performance and compare different access selection strategies, including DUDe (Downlink-Uplink Decoupling) . DWG3
TD(17)04063 On modelling of OTA channel emulation systems Mario Lorenz, Wim Kotterman, Giovanni Del Galdo One trend in OTA testing is leaving handheld UE’s behind and considering mobile stations,  which include may include cars, trucks, trains, boats and even airplanes. State-of-the-art testing  using OTA Wave Field Synthesis approaches do not scale well to these electrically larger UEs. A  similar problem arises in the testing of 5G base stations. In search for better implementations, a tensor based model of channel emulation is proposed. Based on this, channel emulation methods  including their hardware requirements may be characterized to reduce the complexity of the  channel emulation system. EWG-OTA
TD(17)04064 Analysis of RMS Delay Spread of Outdoor Channel at 60 GHz Alberto Loaiza Freire, Angelos A. Goulianos and Mark A. Beach This paper presents the preliminary results of a statistical analysis of the time dispersion of the channel, and its relationship with the angular variation. The analysis is based on channel sounding measurements at 60 GHz performed in the University of Bristol premises. The analysis of channel sparsity was performed by computing the RMS Delay Spread in each angle measured. The angular and spatial consistency for mmWaves are other parameters analysed by correlating the dispersion for different azimuth and elevation angles, and compare with different distances. A very small RMS Delay Spread value was computed for the Optical Line Of Sight, which is produced for the relatively high directive transmitter antenna instead of omnidirectional antenna commonly used. Finally, RMS Delay Spread calculations show a great variability confirming the variable scenario chosen for this measurements, which includes a large reflector, and foliage. DWG1, DWG2
TD(17)04065 Experimental Evaluation of User Influence on Test Zone Size in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups Wei Fan, Lassi Hentila, Pekka Kyosti, Yilin Ji and Gert F. Pedersen There have been extensive efforts in the literature to determine the supported test zone size in the multi-probe anechoic chamber (MPAC) setups. Reported results in MPAC setups in the literature are typically limited in free space conditions, where no user influence is present. Recently, the MPAC method has been selected in CTIA and 3GPP standardization, and CTIA standard has set guidelines on user interaction with multiple antenna terminals in MPAC setups. There is a concern whether or not the test zone size should encompass the user phantom, together with the user terminal (UE). To address this problem, measurement campaigns were performed and the results were reported in the temporary document. Experimental results have shown that user phantom has negligible impact on the test zone size in the MPAC setups for OTA testing. EWG-OTA
TD(17)04066 Wideband mm-Wave Estimation Algorithms and Their Impacts on Channel Characteristics Wei Fan, Yilin Ji, Fengchun Zhang, and Gert F. Pedersen The increasing demand for higher data rates has motivated research in millimeter wave frequency bands for 5G cellular systems. Millimeter wave bands offer huge free spectrum and allow the implementation of massive antenna arrays due to the small wavelength. Accurate characterization of their spatial multipath channel at millimeter wave bands has gained significant interest both in industry and academia, as it is important for system design and performance analysis of future millimeter wave communication systems. In this TD, mmwave channel sounding based on a rotational horn and a virtual uniform circular array (UCA) was performed in a LOS and non-LOS scenario in indoor scenarios. Different channel estimation algorithms, e.g. Classical beamforming, frequency invariant beamforming, SAGE, ML estimator were utilized to analyze the data and compared with rotational horn measured results. The channel characteristics, e.g. mean angle of arrival, angle spread, mean delay and delay spread were analyzed based on the obtained power-angle-delay profiles with different algorithms. DWG1
TD(17)04067 Time Varying Multi-path Components at 28 GHz from Mobile Channel Sounding Mamadou Dialounké Balde, Aki Karttunen, Katsuyuki Haneda, Bernard Uguen, Sinh H. L. Nguyen For fulfilling ubiquitous throughput demand, the 5G will explore new frequency bands typically above the $6$ GHz sub-band. However, several important technical issues related to the radio channel have to be investigated and based on the time-variant radio channel measurement where the receiver antenna is fixed and the transmitter moving along a route, this TD discusses the time-variant multi-path components (MPCs) observed during a wideband measurement campaign performed at $28$ GHz in two realistic indoor environments. DWG1
TD(17)04068 Channel Characteristics and User Body Effects in an Outdoor Urban Scenario at 15 and 28 GHz Kun Zhao, Carl Gustafson, Qingbi Liao, Shuai Zhang, Thomas Bolin, Zhinong Ying and Sailing He In this paper, we investigate the impact of a user’s body on the channel characteristics for single-user downlink transmission in an outdoor urban scenario for 5th generation (5G) wireless systems. The results are based on ray-tracing simulations and antenna pattern measurements at 15 GHz and 28 GHz. Three different designs of user equipment (UE) antennas are fabricated and integrated into a mobile phone prototype. Their three-dimensional radiation patterns are measured with and without users, and the user body effect is determined based on antenna measurements where real users are holding the mobile phone in data mode and in talking mode. The results show that a user’s body can cause a significant shadowing loss at 15 GHz and 28 GHz, that will generate large fluctuations on the received signal strength at the UE side. It is therefore necessary to include the effects of the user body when modeling cellular wireless channels in the frequency range above 6 GHz. DWG1
TD(17)04069 On the Frequency Dependency of Large-scale Radio Channel Parameters:
Analyses and Findings from mmMAGIC Multi-frequency Channel Sounding
Sinh L. H. Nguyen, Jonas Medbo, Michael Peter, Aki Karttunen, Aliou BamBa, Raffaele D’Errico, Naveed Iqbal, Cheikh Diakhate, and Jean-Marc Conrat In this document, we analyze the frequency dependence of the radio channel large scale parameters, with a special focus on the root mean square delay spread (DS), based on the multi-frequency measurement campaigns in the mmMAGIC project. The campaigns cover indoor, outdoor, and outdoor-to-indoor (O2I) scenarios and a wide frequency range from 2 to 86 GHz. Several requirements have been identified that define the parameters which need to be aligned in order to make a reasonable comparison among the different channel sounders that have been employed for this study. After careful statistical analysis, the conclusion is that any frequency trend of the DS is small considering its confidence intervals. There is clear disagreement with the 3GPP New Radio (NR) model 3GPP38.901, except for the O2I scenario. DWG1
TD(17)04070 Advanced Low Power High Speed Nonlinear Signal Processing: An Analog VLSI Example Werner G. Teich, Giuseppe Oliveri, Mohamad Mostafa, Juergen Lindner, Hermann Schumacher Despite the progress made in digital signal processing during the last decades, the constraints imposed by high data rate wireless communications are becoming ever more stringent. Mobile communications moreover raised the importance of power consumption for sophisticated algorithms, such as channel equalization or decoding. The strong link existing between computational speed and power consumption suggests an investigation of signal processing with energy efficiency as a prominent design choice. In this work we revisit the topic of signal processing with analog circuits and its potential to increase the energy efficiency. Channel equalization is chosen as an application of nonlinear signal processing, and a vector equalizer based on a recurrent neural network structure is taken as an example to demonstrate what can be achieved with state of the art in VLSI design. We provide a thorough analysis of the equalizer, including the analog circuit design, system-level simulations, and comparisons with the theoretical algorithm. First measurements of our analog VLSI circuit confirm the possibility to achieve an energy requirement of few pJ/bit, which is an improvement of three to four orders of magnitude compared with today’s most energy efficient digital circuits. DWG2
TD(17)04071 Measurement study of cable influence on channels inside vehicles Irfan M. Yousaf and Buon Kiong Lau As the demand for connectivity and infotainment services increases in the automotive world, the need to measure and characterize the propagation channels inside vehicles also increases. In this work, a measurement study was performed to investigate the influence of RF cables on in-vehicle channels. It was found that, for the same transmit and receive antenna positions, the routing of the measurement cables can significantly affect the channel impulse response. This result points to the need for alternative strategies or solutions to obtain accurate and repeatable channel measurements inside vehicles. DWG1
TD(17)04072 Validation of Numerical Models of Portable Wireless Devices for Specific Absorption
Rate Evaluation
Balint Horvath, Peter Horvath, Zsolt Badics, Jozsef Pavo The major contribution of the paper is a theoretical proof of the equivalence between two approaches of near-field validation techniques for the numerical models of personal wireless communication devices. The current validation practice is to compare measured and computed electromagnetic field or SAR (specific absorption rate) distributions. A new validation technique introduced by the authors recently compares measured and computed antenna inputimpedance changes while the near field is systematically perturbed by a dielectric control object. The proof of the equivalence is based on two novel formulas derived here: a reaction impedance-change formula, and an error formula that establishes a quantitative relationship between the errors of the impedance changes and the near-field values. The equivalence of the two validation techniques is verified experimentally too by comparing measurements and computations for a planar inverted F antenna. By performing numerical experiments for two types of PCB antennas, it is also proved here the first time that the new validation technique is feasible even if the geometric and material properties of the control object are such that the Born approximation can be introduced in the impedance-change formula SEWG-IoT
TD(17)04073 Communication in Dynamic Interference Malcolm Egan, Laurent Clavier, Mauro de Freitas, Louis Dorville, Jean-Marie
Gorce1 and Anne Savard
Fast varying active transmitter sets is a key feature of wireless communication networks with very short transmission, which arises in machine-to-machine communications. A consequence is that the interference is dynamic, leading to non-Gaussian statistics. In particular, the interference can be well modeled by an isotropic alpha-stable random variable. In this paper, we study the behavior of large-scale communication networks in the presence of isotropic alpha-stable interference. We first characterize the achievable rate of each link by considering a non-Gaussian input distribution, which is shown to outperform a Gaussian input. Moreover, we analyze the rate spatial density, which is the average total rate per square meter. Our analysis suggests that dense networks maximize the rate spatial density. DWG2
TD(17)04074 On the Effect of Phase Noise and Local Oscillator Sharing on Self-Interference Cancellation Chunqing Zhang, Leo Laughlin, Mark Beach, Kevni Morris, and John Haine In-band full-duplex (IBFD) radio transceivers, which transmit and receive on the same frequency at the same time, may potentially double the spectral efficiency of future radio networks. However, to achieve this requires high isolation between the transmitter and receiver in order to suppress the self-interference (SI) which results from the co-located co-channel transmitter and receiver. This paper analyses the phase noise (PN) influence on digital non-linear self-interference cancellation when using a shared local oscillator (LO) between the transmit and receive radios in IBFD applications. The SI channel’s non-linearity, memory effect, delay and the LO’s performance are considered. Simulation and experiment results show that the LO PN cannot be completely cancelled, even when using a shared LO, however the performance of digital baseband SI cancellation is dominated by the LO’s thermal noise floor, rather than the LO PN 3 dB bandwidth, and with practical low noise oscillators the residual SI may be well below the receiver noise floor. DWG2
TD(17)04075 LoRaWAN: Evaluation of Link- and System-Level Performance Luca Feltrin, Chiara Buratti, Enrico Vinciarelli, Roberto De Bonis, Roberto Verdone The Internet of Things (IoT) addresses a huge set of possible application domains, requiring both short- and long-range communication technologies. When long distances are present, a number of proprietary and standard solutions for Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) are already available. Among them, LoRaWAN is a candidate technology supported by many network operators. This paper discusses the possible role of LoRaWAN for the IoT. First, the LoRaWAN technology is assessed experimentally through a set of laboratory and on-field tests, to characterize it from the link-level viewpoint; then, a system-level analysis is performed through simulation, to evaluate the capacity of a LoRaWAN gateway and a multi-gateway network to serve a large area. Finally, the results are discussed considering a broad set of use cases. DWG2, EWG-IoT
TD(17)04076 Impact of Propagation Model on Capacity in Small-cell Networks Sofia Sousa, Fernando J. Velez and Jon M. Peha This work evaluates the impact of different path loss models on capacity of small cell (SC) networks, including the relationship between cell size and capacity. We compare four urban path loss models: the urban/vehicular and pedestrian test environment from the ITU-R M. 1255 Report, and the two-slope Micro Urban Line-of-Sight (LoS) and Non-Line-of-Sight (NLoS) models from the ITU-R 2135 Report. We show that when using the ITU-R two-slope model that considers the existence of a break-point in the behaviour of path loss, for coverage distances, R, up to break-point distance divided by reuse factor, supported cell throughput, Rb-sup, is much lower than expected when traditional single-slope models are assumed. For Rs longer than dBP/rcc the results for Rb-sup increase with R, whereas they are steady or decrease with R when using the traditional single-slope propagation models. We conclude that the two-slope propagation model yields a significantly lower throughput per square km than a traditional one-slope model if and only if cell radius is small. DWG3
TD(17)04077 Development of minimum cost forwarding (MCF) and source routing MCF routing protocols over 6TiSCH in OpenWSN Fardin Derogarian, Gordana Gardasevic and Fernando J. Velez Source Routing for Minimum Cost Forwarding (SRMCF) is a reactive, energy-efficient routing protocol which is proposed to improve the existent Minimum Cost Forwarding (MCF) methods, utilized in heterogeneous wireless sensor networks (WSN). SRMCF stems from SR concepts and MCF methods exploited in ad hoc WSNs, where all unicast communications (between sensor nodes and the base node, or vice versa) establish over minimum cost paths. Optimization of routing operation in both direction makes proposed protocol suitable for low power wireless IoT applications. SRMCF and MCF protocols have already been developed and evaluated on IEEE 802.15.4 with BMAC and ContikiMAC. Both of these MAC protocols are based on CSMA scheme. Collision due to concurrent transmission or hidden node problem, decrease the total network throughput and wastes energy as well. A scheduled MAC protocol such as 6TiSCH (IPv6 over the TSCH mode of IEEE 802.15.4e) is able to provide better performance. In this project the idea is to develop MCF and SRMCF routing protocols over 6TiSCH in OpenWSN. This work presents a set of routing protocols and reports the ongoing efforts in the development of routing protocols from the IRACON STSM on this topic performed by the first author in April 2017. The main goal of this joint activity is to integrate the research performed at University of Banja Luka, related to the implementation of IoT networks and the research performed at the University of Universidade da Beira Interior, in the context of routing protocols for WSNs, and experimentally study the underlying network performance with circa ten WSN motes. DWG3, EWG-IoT
TD(17)04078 Preliminary evaluation of NB-IOT technology and its capacity Luca Feltrin, Alberto Marri, Michele Paffetti, Roberto Verdone The Internet of Things (IoT) addresses a huge set of possible application domains, requiring both short- and long-range communication technologies. For long distances, a number of proprietary and standard solutions for Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) are already available. Among them, NB-IOT is a candidate technology supported by many operators. This paper provides an overview of the key features of this technology and an estimation of its performance in terms of network throughput and maximum number of connected devices. Finally, the optimization of a specific set of parameters, in order to provide the best performance, is discussed. DWG1, EWG-IoT
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TD(17)04080 Comparison on Cluster spreads with channels estimated from different algorithms Yilin Ji, Wei Fan The usually considered far-field assumption may not hold anymore, as the array aperture increases to a certain extent with respect to (w.r.t.) the near-field outer boundary (NFB), i.e. R_NFB = (2D^2)/λ, with D being the array aperture and λ the wavelength. Under this circumstance, estimating channel parameters with the plane-wave model may result in severe error. In this paper, a near-field signal model was proposed for the uniform circular array (UCA) to avoid the plane-wave model mismatch during channel estimation at its near-field region. The ability of the underlying model to estimate path parameters were investigated with its ambiguity function. Moreover, a distance threshold dependent on the conventional NFB was proposed, and for the cases where the sources or the scatterers are located outside the proposed distance threshold, the plane-wave model could still be used with little estimation error. DWG1
TD(17)04081 Geometry Based Channel Models with Cross- and Auto-correlation for Simulations of V2V Wireless Networks Christian Nelson, Nikita Lyamin, Alexey Vinel, Fredrik Tufvesson Realistic network simulations are necessary to assess the performance of any communication system. In this paper, we describe an implementation of two channel models for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication in the OMNeT++/Plexe-Veins simulation environment. The two models are based on previous extensive measurements in a V2V multilink scenario and cover line-of-sight (LOS) as well as obstructed LOS scenarios. They capture both the auto-correlation and the joint multilink cross-correlation processes to get a realistic model. Preliminary results shows that the implementation now generates stochastic channels with an auto-correlation function that agrees well with measured data. Next step is the implementation of the cross-correlation process, which should be straightforward since the geometry and location of objects are known in Veins. DWG1
TD(17)04082 Initial results on the performance of fixed mm-wave wireless links with relaying Carl Gustafson, Sofie Pollin and Liesbet Van der Perre Millimeter-wave wireless systems are susceptible to blockage by humans, buildings and other objects, and the penetration losses through typical building materials are often significant. This can lead to intermittent coverage and connectivity. Millimeter-wave cellular systems can also suffer from additional losses due to the interaction between a user and any hand-held user-equipment. In order to combat these losses, the system needs to rely on large antenna arrays with beamforming techniques. For the cellular case, the beamforming needs to be adaptively updated based on the dynamic movement and shadowing of the user. One way to improve coverage and connectivity is to utilise relaying techniques. This could be done using a network of fixed mm-wave wireless links that utilise relaying or multi-hop protocols. In this paper, we present some initial results on the performance of such systems, for simplified out-door-to-outdoor and out-door-to-indoor scenarios, with and without blockage. The study includes experimental values of the penetration loss for brick walls and different types of windows in the frequency range of 5-67 GHz, as well as experimental and theoretical values for any foliage losses. Our initial results give some insight into how dense mm-wave deployment needs to be to guarantee sufficient coverage. We also illustrate the end-to-end throughput that can be achieved when relying on multi-hop or relaying protocols. DWG1
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TD(17)04084 Frequency Reuse Trade-off and System Capacity in Small Cell Networks in the Millimetre Wavebands Emanuel Teixeira, Sofia Sousa, Rui R. Paulo and Fernando J. Velez In this work, we identify and discuss the potentialities of mobile cellular communications in the millimetre wavebands, showing that very high bit/data rates can be supported in small cells with short range coverage supporting both mobile broadband and machine-type of traffic (e.g., originated from Very High Throughput Wireless Sensor Networks). As, in real environments, cellular mobile communications are simultaneously affected by noise and co-channel interference, is a worth studying the behavior of the carrier-to-noise-plus-interference ratio with the coverage distance (and the actual distance from users to the eNBs) and analyze its impact in cellular planning and optimization process. We assess the equivalent supported throughput within cells for each value of the reuse pattern, K, assuming, in this preliminary phase, the use of LTE (but other air interfaces will also be assumed). In terms of cell coverage and the computation of interference, LoS propagation models have been considered, at the 28, 38, 60 and 73 GHz frequency bands. From these analytical computations, we conclude that, at 28 GHz, although lower system capacity is achieved for very short coverage distances, of the order of 25 m, in comparison to the 73 GHz frequency band, the supported throughput increases for longer coverage ranges, and is clearly more favourable for the lowest frequency band. Owing to the additional attenuation of oxygen, the 60 GHz frequency band is more challenging, as the lowest values of the co-channel interference due to the additional oxygen attenuation originate higher values for the supported throughput, even for lower values of the reuse factor/pattern. DWG3
TD(17)04085 TDD channel reciprocity calibration in hybrid beamforming massive MIMO systems Xiwen Jiang and Florian Kaltenberger Hybrid analog and digital beamforming structure is a very attractive solution to build low cost massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems. One major challenge in releasing its potential is the acquisition of accurate channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT). In this paper, we propose a CSIT acquisition method based on the channel reciprocity property under time division duplex (TDD) mode. Especially, we show how to calibrate hardware non-symmetry in the hybrid beamforming structure. Different with existing CSIT acquisition methods, our approach does not require any assumption on the channel model and can obtain near perfect CSIT. EWG-RA